···Chemistry Exam Study Guide··· Chapters 1-3 May 2014
Chapter 1 Matter and Change
Chemistry is defined as the study of the composition and structure of materials and…. A. the categories of matter. B. the changes in matter. C. the electrical currents in matter. D. molecules in living things.
The branch of chemistry that includes the study of materials and processes that occur in living things is… A. organic chemistry. B. physical chemistry. C. analytical chemistry. D. biochemistry.
The branch of chemistry that is concerned with the identification and composition of materials is… A. analytical chemistry. B. inorganic chemistry. C. physical chemistry. D. organic chemistry.
The study of substances containing carbon is… A. organic chemistry. B. inorganic chemistry. C. nuclear chemistry. D. analytical chemistry.
Technology is the… A. application of chemical principles to predict events. B. application of scientific knowledge to solve problems. C. study of scientific processes. D. analysis of chemical behavior.
Basic research is… A. the production and use of products that improve our quality of life. B. carried out to solve a problem. C. the identification of the components and composition of materials. D. carried out for the sake of increasing knowledge.
Matter includes all the following EXCEPT… A. air. B. light. C. smoke. D. water vapor.
Two features that distinguish matter are… A. mass and velocity. B. weight and velocity. C. mass and volume. D. weight and volume.
The melting of the candle wax is classified as a physical change because it… A. produces no new substances. B. transfers energy. C. absorbs heat. D. changes the chemical properties of wax.
An example of a chemical change is… A. sanding wood. B. melting ice. C. Milk going sour. D. vaporizing gasoline.
A physical change occurs when a… A. peach spoils. B. copper bowl tarnishes. C. bracelet turns your wrist green. D. glue gun melts a glue stick.
The particles in a solid state are… A. packed closely together. B. Very far apart. C. constantly in motion. D. able to slide past each other.
The state of matter in which a material is most likely to resist compression is the… A. solid state. B. liquid state. C. gaseous state. D. vaporous state.
Elements in a group in the periodic table can be expected to have similar… A. atomic masses. B. atomic numbers. C. numbers of neutrons. D. properties.
A vertical column of blocks in the periodic table is called a(n)… A. group. B. period. C. property. D. octet.
Chapter 2 Measurement and Calculations
All of the following are steps in the scientific method EXCEPT… A. observing and recording data. B. forming a hypothesis. C. discarding data inconsistent with the hypothesis. D. developing a model.
The reason for organizing, analyzing, and classifying data is… A. so that computers can be used. B. to prove a law. C. to find relationship among the data. D. to separate qualitative and quantitative data.
Quantitative observation are recorded using… A. numerical information. B. a control. C. non-numerical information. D. a system.
A theory is best described as a… A. series of experimental observations. B. Generalization that explains a body of known facts or phenomena. C. scientifically proven fact. D. testable statement.
The validity of scientific concepts is evaluated by… A. Collecting facts. B. providing explanations. C. voting by scientists. D. testing hypothesis.
The SI standard unit for length and mass are… A. centimeter and gram. B. meter and gram. C. centimeter and kilogram. D. meter and kilogram.
The symbols for units of length in order from smallest to largest are… A. m, cm, mm, km. B. mm, m, cm, km. C. km, mm, cm, m. D. mm, cm, m, km.
The quantity of matter per unit volume is… A. mass. B. weight. C. inertia. D. density.
A volume of 1 cubic centimeter is equivalent to…. A. 1 millimeter. B. 1 gram. C. 1 liter. 10 (-1).
A Change in the force of Earth’s gravity on an object will affect its… A. mass. B. density. C. weight. D. kinetic energy.
A measurement is said to have a good precision if it… A. precise. B. reliable. C. significant. D. accurate.
A measurement is said to have a good precision if it… A. agrees closely with an accepted standard. B. number in the calculation with most significant figures. C. average number of significant figures in the calculation. D. total number of significant figures in the calculation.
In division and multiplication, the answer must not have more significant figures than the… A. Number in the calculation with fewest significant figures. B. number in the calculation with most significant figures. C. Average number of significant figures in the calculation. D. total number of significant figures in the calculation.
The speed of light is 300,000 km/s. In scientific notation, this speed is… A. 3 x 10(5) km/s. B. 3.00 x 10(5) km/s. C. 3.0 x 10(6) km/s. D. 3.00 x 10(6) km/s.
Chapter 3 The Building Blocks of Matter
If two or more compounds are composed of the same two elements, the ratio of the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other element is a simple whole number. This is a statement of the law of… A. conservation of mass. B. mass action. C. multiple proportions. D. definite composition.
According to the law of definite proportions, any two samples of KCl have… A. the same mass. B. slightly different molecular structures. C.the same melting point. D. the same ratio of elements.
According to the law of conservation of mass, when sodium, hydrogen, and oxygen react to form a compound, the mass of the compound is …. The sum of the masses of the individual elements. A. Equal to. B. Greater than. C. less than. D. either greater than or less than.
Who was the schoolmaster who studied chemistry and proposed an atomic theory? A. John Dalton B. Jons Berzelius C. Robert Brown D. Dmitri Mendeleev
Which concept in Dalton's atomic theory has been modified? A. all matter is composed of atoms. B. atoms of different elements have different properties and masses C. atoms can combine in chemical reactions. D. atoms cannot be divided.
What did Rutherford conclude about the structure of the atom? • An atom is indivisible • Electrons make up the center of an atom • An atom carries a positive charge. • An atom contains a small, dense, positively charged central region.
A positively charged particle with mass 1.673 x 10(24)g is a(n).. • Proton • Neutron • Electron • Positron
The nucleus of an atom has all the following characteristics EXCEPT that it… • Is positively charged • Is very dense • Contains nearly all of the atom’s mass • Contains nearly all of the atom’s volume
Which part of an atom has a mass approximately equal to 1/2000 of the mass of a common hydrogen atom? • Nucleus • Electron • Proton • Electron cloud
The mass of a neutron is • About the same as that of a proton • About the same as that of an electron • Double that of a proton • Double that of a electron
Protons and neutrons strongly attract when they? • Are moving fast • Are very close together • Are at high energies • Have opposite charges
An atom of the same element that have different masses are called? • Moles • Isotopes • Nuclides • Neutrons
Isotopes of an element contain different numbers of? • Electrons • Protons • Neutrons • Nuclides
Helium -4 and helium -3 are? • Isotopes • Different elements • Compounds • nuclei
Isotopes of each element differ in? • The number of the neutrons in the nucleus • Atomic number • The number of electrons in the highest energy level • The total number of electrons
The atomic number of oxygen, 8, indicates that there are eight? • Protons in the nucleus of an oxygen atom • Oxygen nuclides • Neutrons outside the oxygen atom’s nucleus • Energy levels in the oxygen atom’s nucleus
Total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is its? • Atomic number • Avogadro constant • Mass number • Number of neutrons