End of The Middle Ages What Brought an end to the Middle ages?
1) Bubonic Plague • Failure of the Church to prevent Plague • Church looses credibility • Need for Labor • Serfs can demand wages • Serfs leave manor
2) The 100 Year War (1337 - 1453) • Trade dispute leads to war between France and England • England and France go to war Flanders England’s
England Invades France • English Badly outnumbered BUT… Use longbow • Can pierce knights armor • French army is slaughtered • Common man can defeat knight! • Englishmen fighting for England, Frenchmen fighting for France What is so special about that? -Not fighting for a lord- Idea of Nationalism Knight Warfare is Dead
3) The Great Schism “I’m the Pope” “No, I’m The Pope” “NO, I’m the Pope” Pope Elected By French Bishops Pope Elected By Italian Bishops NO, I’M the Pope” “No, I said I’M The Pope!” “Uh-ah,I’m THE Pope” “NO! ME, I’m the Pope!!”
Two Papal Capitals How Did Europe Get Two Popes? • Pope Dies • Italian Mobs force French Cardinals in Rome to elect Italian Pope • Cardinals flee to Avignon, France, make “new Pope
Loss of Church Leadership • Each Pope Claims the other is a Heretic • Focus is on gaining advantage over opponent (not Christianity) • Corruption increased
The Glue that Has held Europe together since the Fall Rome is coming apart The End of the Middle Ages • Church • No Leadership in time of crisis - Great Schism • Clergy seem more interested in wealth • Plague isn’t stopped by prayers and penances; Clergy desert the people • New sources of knowledge brought to Europe - Crusades • Church is bought into greater question - revival of learning • Feudal Society • Knights no longer effective - 100 yrs. War • Surfs begin to move to towns and cities - growth of towns • Sense of Nationalism grows - 100 yrs. War • People develop economic independence - growth of towns • Population reduced - Bubonic Plague • Money becomes available for new businesses - financial rev. • New limits on the power of Kings - Magna Carta