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Paleozoic Era Invertebrates

Paleozoic Era Invertebrates

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Paleozoic Era Invertebrates

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  1. Paleozoic Era Invertebrates Chapter 12 Part 1

  2. Paleozoic Geology • 4 transgressions • Major orogenies • Mountain ranges form/oceans close + open • Pangaea forms

  3. Pre-Paleozoic life • Stromatolites • Ediacaran fauna

  4. End of the Paleozoic life

  5. Cambrian climate • What is the climate like coming out of the Proterozoic? • Where are most of the continents located?

  6. Cambrian • Animals with skeletons appear, abruptly • Cambrian explosion • Why?

  7. Early Cambrian fossils • Shelly fauna • Several millimeters

  8. Why develop a calcium skeleton in the Cambrian? • Precambrian oceans low in calcium carbonate (calcite) • Theory now rejected • How to disprove?

  9. Why develop a calcium skeleton in the Cambrian? • Metabolic systems evolving • Organism needs to eliminate mineral matter • Secret excess ions as skeleton

  10. Why develop an exoskeleton? • Advantages?

  11. Wounded Trilobite Cambrian predator and prey • Anomalocaris and trilobite

  12. Marine communities • How things get around • Where they live • How they feed

  13. Where marine animals live/how they move • Organisms live above seafloor are pelagic • Plankton are floaters • Nekton are swimmers

  14. Where marine animals live/how they move • Organisms live above seafloor are pelagic • Plankton are floaters • Nekton are swimmers • Animal plankton: zooplankton • Plant plankton: phytoplankton

  15. Where they live/how they move • Organisms live in/on seafloor are benthonic • Infauna (live in sediment) • Epifauna (animals) • Epiflora (plants) • Can be sessile (stationary) • Or mobile

  16. Feeding style • Suspension feeders: catch food from water (plants, animals, nutrients) • Sediment-deposit feeders: ingest sediment • Herbivores: plant eaters • Carnivore/scavenger: meat eaters

  17. Description • Benthonic, epifaunal, suspension feeder • Animal lives on seafloor and removes food from water

  18. Cambrian marine community • Cambrian explosion • Experimentation!

  19. Famous Cambrian fossil locations • Burgess Shale, British Columbia • Sauk Sea transgressing

  20. Sands covered with black mud • Shale preserved benthonic, soft-bodied community

  21. Why there? • Avalanche of mud off edge of coast trapped shallow-water creatures • Fine mud let soft-bodies be preserved

  22. Trilobites • Appear in the Cambrian • Benthonic, mobile, sediment-deposit feeders

  23. Trilobites • Member of arthropod phylum • Exoskeleton • Distinct parts to body • Jointed appendages

  24. Trilobites • Member of arthropod phylum • Exoskeleton • Distinct parts to body • Jointed appendages

  25. Trilobites • Max diversity by Late Cambrian

  26. Trilobites • Extinction at end of Cambrian • Increased competition? • Increased predation? • Loss of habitat? • Cooling seas?

  27. Cambrian Brachiopods • Two-shelled animals • Benthonic, sessile, suspension feeders • Inarticulate: muscles held shells together

  28. Inarticulate Brachiopod • Two-shelled animals • Benthonic, sessile, suspension feeders • Inarticulate: muscles held shells together

  29. Cambrian Archaeocyathid • Benthonic, sessile, suspension feeders • Built reef-like structures

  30. Cambrian Archaeocyathid • Benthonic, sessile, suspension feeders • Built reef-like structures

  31. Other fauna • Arthropod from Burgess shale

  32. Other fauna: • Short-lived evolutionary experiments • Anomalocaris • Up to 3 feet long • Major predator

  33. Other fauna: • Short-lived evolutionary experiments • Helicoplacus: extinct 20 Ma after appeared

  34. Marella, < 1 inch

  35. Halluciginia

  36. Arthropod-like creature

  37. Cambrianscaly slug

  38. Paleozoic life • Cambrian Explosion • Exoskeleton • Experimentation • Animals to know: • Trilobite • Brachiopod • Archaeocyathid