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Lecture 19 Life of the Late Paleozoic Era. Historical Geology. Late Paleozoic Life. I Late Paleozoic Marine Communities II Late Paleozoic Land Communities A) Plants 1) Spore-bearing Plants 2) Gymnosperms B) Metazoans (Animals) 1) Reptiles 2) The Amniotic Egg

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Lecture 19

Life of the Late Paleozoic Era

slide2

Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Life

I Late Paleozoic Marine Communities

II Late Paleozoic Land Communities

A) Plants

1) Spore-bearing Plants

2) Gymnosperms

B) Metazoans (Animals)

1) Reptiles

2) The Amniotic Egg

III The Permian Mass Extinction

slide4

Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Marine Communities

slide5

Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Marine Communities

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Crinoidea

slide6

Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Marine Communities

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Blastoidea

Petremites

slide7

Historical Geology

Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Marine Communities

Productid Brachiopods

  • index fossils for the Permian period
  • spines were attached at raised bumps found on fossil shells
slide8

Late Paleozoic Marine Communities

Fusulinids

Historical Geology

Kingdom: Protista

slide9

Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Life

Plants

slide10

Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Land Flora

slide11

Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Land Flora

Lycopsids

Lepidodendron stem

Lepidostrobus cone

Baragwanathia

Lycopodium

slide12

Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Land Flora

Sphenopsids

  • Sphenopsids were segmented spore plants that also achieved giant sizes
    • Calamites, Annularia
    • Modern sphenopsids include “horsetails”
slide13

Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Land Flora

The Advantage of Seeds

slide14

Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Land Flora

Seed Ferns

Glossopteris

slide15

Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Life

Insects

  • Insects had appeared in Devonian time
    • Wingless forms
  • Insects underwent evolutionary radiation in Carboniferous time
    • Primitive winged forms (dragon flies)
    • Forms with folding wings
slide16

Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Life

The Amniotic Egg

slide17

Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Life

Reptile Evolution

slide18

Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Life

Reptile Evolution

slide19

Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Life

Reptile Evolution - Pelycosaurs

  • evolved from the protorothyrids during the Pennsylvanian
  • the dominant reptile group by the Early Permian
  • evolved into a diverse assemblage

The herbivore Edaphosaurus

The carnivore Dimetrodon

slide20

Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Life

Reptile Evolution - Therapsids

Moschops

Dicynodon

diverse, mammal-like reptiles

originated in the Permian but survived into the Triassic period

slide21

Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Life

Reptile Evolution - Therapsid Characteristics

  • small- to medium-sized animals
  • displaying many mammalian features
      • fewer bones in the skull due to fusion of many of the small skull bones
      • enlargement of the lower jawbone
      • differentiation of the teeth for various functions such as nipping, tearing, and chewing food
      • and a more vertical position of the legs for greater flexibility,
      • as opposed to the sideways sprawling legs in primitive reptiles
slide22

Historical Geology

The Permian Mass Extinction

Losses

Species: 90-95%

slide23

Historical Geology

The Permian Mass Extinction

fusulinids

bryozoans

tabulate

corals

rugose

corals

porifera

trilobites

brachiopods

crinoidea

blastoidea

gastropoda

slide24

Historical Geology

The Permian Mass Extinction

  • Global Cooling (Glaciation
  • Marine anoxia began in Late Permian, extended through Early Triassic
  • Negative shift in d13C values at extinction level (continental and marine sections)
  • Age of massive Siberian flood basalts is same as extinction
  • Climatic warming and drying near extinction level
  • Rapid Sea Level Oscillations
slide25

Historical Geology

The Permian Mass Extinction

Deep-sea anoxic interval (Japan)

slide26

Historical Geology

The Permian Mass Extinction

d13C isotopic shift(Italian Alps)

slide27

Historical Geology

The Permian Mass Extinction

Siberian Flood Basalts

Reichow et al.

Science 2002

slide28

Historical Geology

The Permian Mass Extinction

Siberian Flood Basalts

  • 45 identified lava flows
  • 400m to 3,700m thick
  • Volume of 1.5 to 3 × 106 km3
  • Duration of eruptions was only ~600 ky
slide29

Historical Geology

The Permian Mass Extinction

Climate Change

  • Change from meandering to braided river systems in South Africa and Urals
    • Reduction in bank-stabilizing vegetation
  • Widespread charcoal horizons, desert sedimentation, warm indicators in paleosols (China, Australia, Antarctica)
  • Abrupt change from Glossopteris- to Dicroidium-dominated floras (Australia)