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Two year old Jerry and his father go to the supermarket to buy food for the week. Jerry is tired and hungry, and the trip ends up with him face down in the cereal aisle, kicking and screaming because his father won’t buy the sugary cereal he wanted.

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Emotional Development from one to three


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    1. Two year old Jerry and his father go to the supermarket to buy food for the week. Jerry is tired and hungry, and the trip ends up with him face down in the cereal aisle, kicking and screaming because his father won’t buy the sugary cereal he wanted. What might have caused this situation? How could it have been avoided

    2. Emotional Development from one to three • Describe patterns of emotional development from ages one to three • Identify the common emotions of young children and the changing ways they express those emotions • Analyze how individual differences affect emotional development • Explain how self-concepts develop

    3. General Emotions • Go through periods of negativism and rebellion • Happy, clam, and stabile • Rollercoaster

    4. 18 months • Self-centered – they think about their own needs and wants, not those of others • Transition from having all their needs met to have to wait • Favorite word is NO • Negativism doing the opposite of what is asked of them

    5. 18 months Causes of Negativism • Desire for independence • Frustration • Separate person • Battle of wills between the child and caregiver is possible at this age. • Remove as many restrictions as possible

    6. 18 months Positive Guidance • Give choices – allows the child to exercise control (two choices) • Redirect – take their attention of the issue • Encourage talking – use your words

    7. 18 months 18 months • This is the age TEMPER TANTRUMS may start • They can continue until age three or four • Find less explosive ways to express their anger

    8. Two Years • Their world is better • Less frustration in their life • Speech and language skills are better • Motor skills have improved • Understand more things • Attention span is longer • Show love and affection • Friendly and less self- • centered

    9. Two and One- Half Years • The stage known as “The Terrible Two’s” • Start to feel overwhelmed by all the things they are learning • Comprehension and desires exceed their physical abilities • They know what they want to say but can’t make themselves understood • Drive for independence is strong

    10. Two and One-Half Years Drive for Independence Clash of Independence and Maturity Stubborn Demanding Domineering • Resist pressures to conform • Don’t boss me • Don’t show me • Don’t help me • Don’t direct me Rapid mood changes – become loveable and sweet

    11. Two and One-Half Years • Want consistency and routines • Routines help build confidence and a feeling of security • Independent and Dependent – “do it on my own, can I have help” • Provide flexible limitations rather than strict rules

    12. Love and patience are essential … especially when the child is neither loveable nor patient

    13. Three Years • Sunny and cooperative • Considerate • Physically more capable • Willing to take directions • Crave praise and affection • Fewer tantrums • Talk, talk, talk • Can be reasoned and controlled with words

    14. Three and One-Half Years • Insecure • Emotionally going backwards instead of forward • Fears are common • Dark, lion and tigers, monsters, strangers, loud noises

    15. Three and One-Half Years • Emotional tension and insecurity show up in physical ways nail biting thumb sucking nose picking stumbling stuttering To ensure their security they try to control their environment by issuing commands “Talk to me” “Sit down”

    16. Comprehension Check • What difficult lessons are eighteen month old learning? • What are three reasons for toddler’s negativism? • Name two strategies for coping with negativism • How is emotional development during the toddler years like a roller coaster?

    17. Review Behavior Age Eighteen Months Two Two and one-half Three Three and one-half • Extreme self-centeredness, negativism • Insecure, fears, bossiness • Strong drive for independence, rapid mood changes • Improved skills lead to greater calmness, affectionate • Talking toys, playmates, imaginary friends

    18. Children’s Health- Anger • Research shows that a two-year-old displays more aggression than a child of any other age between birth and age 20. Kicking, biting, pushing, and other physically aggressive behaviors at this age are normal reactions to frustration and anger and normal testing of limits. Research also shows that some children are more aggressive that others. Children who exhibit high levels of violent aggression early on are more likely to commit crimes or fall into substance abuse later in life.

    19. Transitions • Give advance warning for change. Remind the child 5 minutes ahead of an activity ending. • Prepare children for what they will do or see in the new activity. • Use language the child can understand. Say “we are going after lunch.” Do not say “ we are going out after awhile.” • Allow extra time so children will • not feel rushed.

    20. Anger A child’s way of acting to frustration • 18 month – anger isn’t directed a person or thing • 2 year old anger is at a person or object • 3 year old –less violent instead resort to name calling, pouting, scolding

    21. Causes of Anger • More frequent in anxious, insecure child • Child who hasn’t learned self-control • Overly critical parents • Inconsistent parenting (demands need to be reasonable) • Temporary causes • Sickness • Tired • Hungry • uncomfortable • As caregivers – we need to stay in calm and be in control of our emotions • Caregiver reacts angrily it will make the situation worse. Read page 385 Biting and Hitting

    22. When was the last time you were angry? • Did you show it, or hide it? • If you showed it, how did you do so? • If you suppressed it, is this a good thing? • What are some healthy ways to express anger? • How can you improve the way you handle anger? • Could this technique be used with young children?

    23. Fear Understanding the Cause and Effect

    24. Fears • One Year Old – high places, strangers, and loud noises • Three Year Old – dark, storms, animals • Between One and Four all children experience separation anxiety

    25. Fears • Adults communicate their fears to children • Some fears are useful, Keep children from dangerous situations Others must be overcome

    26. Jealousy 18 months old start to show Three at its peak Jealous over affection between parents Sibling Rivalry

    27. Dr. Marianne Neifert • “By giving your child your undivided attention, you let her know that she’s more important than anything else at that moment. Put down the newspaper when she’s trying to talk to you. Maintain eye contact and listen to what she’s saying.” • How does this advice relate to jealousy?

    28. Love and Affection • Relationship that children have with others in these years form the basis of their capacity for love and affection in later life. • Children learn how to love • Begins with the parents, then siblings, caregivers, pets, and moves on

    29. Empathy • Begins somewhere between 18months and one year • Empathy – ability to put self in another’s place • Learn that their actions hurt others • Caregivers can help

    30. Individual Differences • Temperament – how you respond to people and events • Intense • Adaptable • Perceptive

    31. Developing a Positive Self-Concept –how you see your self Positive Negative Bad person Incapable person Lose emotional control • Good person • Capable person • Control emotions

    32. How is Self-Concept Formed? • Formed in response to the actions, attitudes, and comments of others • Parents have the strongest influence • One to three years is a crucial time for the development of self concept • Children believe what you say about them so that is the way they behave • They will live up to the image they are compared to

    33. Self Concept • Want children to master skills • Explore the world • Parents may unintentionally act in ways that hurts a child’s self concept

    34. Evaluating Emotional Adjustments • How do you tell if they are adjusting emotionally well? • Seek approval and praise • Turn to parents for comfort • Talks to parents and share joy, sorrow • Accepts limits and discipline without a lot of resistance • Good relationship with siblings

    35. Social Development from One to Three • Who was your very first friend? • How did the friendship begin? • Are you still friends with that person?

    36. Read- Underline / Highlight • “At eighteen months, children begin developing independence from the family. For most children, the closest relationships are – and – remain those with family members. However, toddlers need to learn about the outside world. Thais may mean trips to the playground or other opportunities to be with children and adults who are not part of the family. Some children attend child care all day. “

    37. Vocabulary • Cooperate – to work with others • Parallel – everything is a equal distance and not meeting • Socialization – learning to get along with others

    38. 18 Month Old How do the emotional characteristics of an eighteen month old surface in a child’s social development?

    39. Two Year Old You are the parent of a two year old. You stay at home to care for your child. What can you do to give the child opportunity to interact with other people?

    40. How can parents help socializtion? • One year olds talk about the names of toys and their characteristics • Two year olds, provide toys that require decision making. Begin to teach taking turns • Three year olds allow them to play with other children without parent involvement.

    41. Play Personalities Toddlers often show one of two opposing types of behavior when they are with other children. Some toddlers will give up every toy they have in order to avoid conflict. Others will monopolize every toy in sight. In each case caregivers can help children learn appropriate negotiating skills. They can either learn to share more willingly, or to give up less easily.

    42. Vignettes • Write five vignettes that describe social behavior at the five ages. • Vignettes – short graceful literary sketch • “He was a tallboy with cold, cold eyes…”

    43. Making Friends • Important to normal social development • Developing normal if they have at least one friend at a time. • Unwilling or unable need to discover the reason and help • Friendships are we learn to give and take • Caregivers we may need to teach kids how to act or play with others

    44. Children who are in social settings learn how to cope with various behaviors. (taking toys, hitting, biting, name calling) • Need to learn how to enjoy the “rough and tumble” companionship of other children • Adult only companionship- may never learn how to interact with other kids.

    45. Disagreement among friends • Should the caregiver step in? • Or should kids learn to solve problems on their own? • It is best if the caregiver does not give a solution, but instead guides the children to find on themselves

    46. Imaginary friend • Start as young as two, usually three or four • Person or animal • May have several or just one • These children have a rich imagination • They can use this friend to help explore different feelings

    47. Imaginary Friend • Share negative feelings • Mirror the child's experiences • They can tell others how their friend is feeling about experiences • Friends usually fade away • Normal, Not for parents to worry about.