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Ecological Approaches in the New Public Health
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  1. Ecological Approaches in the New Public Health Mathaniel Lehmann

  2. Structural Model of Health Behavior (Cohen et al., 2000) Emphasizes Environmental Influences on Behavior Availability / Accessibility Physical Structures Social Structures and Policy Media and Cultural Influences

  3. Availability / Accessibility • Greater Access, more likely behavior occurs • Reduced Access, less likely behavior occurs • Methods • Physical Limitations • Price Elasticity

  4. Physical Structures • Changes in the built environment can lead to behavior changes • “Children Can’t Fly” • Window Guards • Bike Paths • Defensible Spaces

  5. Social Structures and Policy • Regulations • Seat Belts • Smoking • Alcohol

  6. Media and Cultural Influences Shapes social norms about the acceptability and attractiveness of engaging in certain health behaviors Stereotypes: http://youtu.be/JGWy7mp60A4 Cain: http://youtu.be/lwawPMSJins

  7. Behavioral Ecological Model(Hovell et al., 2009) Social/Cultural • Focuses on the Effects of Metacontingencies • Applies concept of Operant Conditioning to the societal level Community Local Outside the Skin Individual Level Context Consequences Behavior Learning History Within the Skin Physiology Anatomy Genome

  8. Structural Interventions • The environment provides important influences on health and behavior • Structures can be altered to support the adoption and maintenance of health-protective behaviors • Physical • Legal • Economic • Regulatory • The Tale of Two Cities

  9. Microenvironments and Macroenvironments • Microenvironments are proximal • Fresh food in your home • Macroenvironments are distal • Fast-food outlets in community

  10. Microenvironments and Macroenvironments • Asymmetric Paternalism • Healthful “choice” is the default option by giving access to the healthy choice and inhibiting access to the unhealthy choice • Stair placement • Emphasis on low-fat menu items • Zoning regulations limiting alcohol and fast-food