Chapter 8: The Progressive Era 1890-1920. Section 1: The Drive for Reform. Progressivism – Political belief that new ideas and honest, efficient government could bring about social justice. I. Origins of Progressivism. Who were the Progressives?
People from all walks of life; growing middle class, industrial workers, immigrant minorities. All social classes, political parties, ethnic groups, and religions.
a. Political corruption
i. Political machines
ii. Wanted safe water, paved streets, decent
housing, and a safe life.
i. Did not want officials to control city services
d. Big Business
i. “bust the trusts”
ii. create more opportunities for small
e. reduce the gap between the “have and have nots”
better working conditions, pay, and living conditions.
* Took photographs of city life in New York.
a. “How the other half lives” was a photographic expose’ of how many people in America live their lives.
Upton Sinclair – “The Jungle”(2:56)
1. Settlement House – A community center that provided services to the poor.
2. Jane Addams – Became a leading figure in the settlement house movement.
a. Opened Hull House in Chicago that was so successful that she opened up 13 other sites.
1. Florence Kelley – Illinois lawyer who convinced Illinois to ban child labor.
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire(4:48)
A. Reforms Improve City Government
1. 1900 a hurricane destroyed Galveston, Tx.
1. Robert LaFollete – “Fighting Bob” was the governor of Wisconsin.
a. Created a direct primary where voters chose who would run for office.
1. Fighting Bob LaFollete - Wisconsin
2. Hiram Johnson – California
a. Shattered the control that the Southern Pacific RR had over state government.
3. Theodore Roosevelt (NY) and Woodrow Wilson (NJ) were also prominent reform minded Governors of the era.
3. Were often cheated by their employers
a. Their work on this issue led to the passage of the 18th Amendment.
b. She did time in Queen Anne’s Prison before winning on appeal…thus changing the laws
A. Catt Takes Charge of the Movement
a. National Women’s Party – Organized the 1st women’s protest march at the White House.
b. Hundreds arrested & thousands on hunger strikes and other sorts of radical tactics.
I. Progressivism Presents Contradictions
2. Called the Niagara Movement – Denounced the idea of gradual progress.
a. Aimed to help African Americans be “physically free from peonage, mentally free from ignorance, politically free from disfranchisement, and socially free from insult.”
5.The group, made up of both blacks and whites, sought to use the courts to challenge unfair laws.
a. Helped families buy clothes and books and send children to school.
1. The goal was, and still is, to defend Jews and others against physical and verbal attacks, false statements, and “to secure justice and fair treatment to all citizens alike”.
2. Mutualista – Groups who made loans and provided legal assistance to Mexicans
A. 1902 Coal Strike
2. Compromise was reached – 10% pay raise, 9 hour day, no strikes for 3 years.
3. Roosevelt’s administration attacked and defeated 44 trusts using the Sherman anti-trust act. (oil, tobacco, RR & beef among them)
a. Northern Securities Company – Had a complete monopoly over RR in NW U.S.
A. Protecting Health
4. Did not outlaw the harmful things being put in, but made sure the public had knowledge of what they were ingesting.
A. Taft had his own agenda.
a. a graduated tax that taxed higher incomes more
1. Country divided into zones, each with it’s own federal reserve bank that controlled the flow of currency.