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Chapter 3. England Discovers Its Colonies: Empire, Liberty, and Expansion. Web. Significant Demographic Differences among the Colonies. Sex ratio more equal in the Chesapeake than in the Sugar islands Life expectancy longer in the Chesapeake than in the sugar islands

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chapter 3

Chapter 3

England Discovers Its Colonies: Empire, Liberty, and Expansion


significant demographic differences among the colonies
Significant Demographic Differences among the Colonies
  • Sex ratio more equal in the Chesapeake than in the Sugar islands
  • Life expectancy longer in the Chesapeake than in the sugar islands
  • New England was one of the healthiest places on earth
    • Sex ratio approached equality
    • Early marriages and large families
  • Caribbean colonies dominated by young men’
  • New England dominated by grandfathers
  • West Indies had slave majority by 1700
  • Middle Atlantic colonies most ethnically diverse
1640s as tumultuous time for england s colonies
1640s as Tumultuous Time for England’s Colonies
  • Dutch seized control of trade in and out of English West Indies and Chesapeake colonies
  • Only Virginia had royal governor
  • Indian Wars almost destroyed New England, New Netherland, and Maryland in mid-1640s
    • Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven founded the New England Confederation in 1643 as defensive alliance
mercantilism as applied to england s colonies after 1650
Mercantilism as Applied to England’s Colonies after 1650
  • Power derived from a Nation’s wealth
  • Colonies were necessary for economic growth
  • Nations had to control the commerce of their colonies
  • First Navigation Act, 1651
    • Rules on which goods could enter English ports on which ships
    • Rules on nationality of captain and crew of ships
    • Generated opposition in the colonies
mercantilism as applied to england s colonies after 1650 cont
Mercantilism as Applied to England’s Colonies after 1650(cont.)
  • Navigation Act of 1660
    • All colonial trade had to be carried on English ships
    • New rules on nationality of captain and crew of ships
    • Enumerated commodities that could be shipped from the colony of origin only to England or another English colony
  • Staple Act of 1663
    • Regulated goods going to colonies
  • Plantation Duty Act of 1673
    • Designed to guarantee adherence to rules on enumerated commodities
  • Overall, Navigation Acts were tremendously successful at displacing the Dutch and establishing English hegemony over the Atlantic trade
consequences of colonies for indian societies
Consequences of Colonies for Indian Societies
  • Effects of European diseases
  • Mourning wars and tribal adoptions
  • Integration of European materials and products into Indian life
  • Missionary efforts
    • Most pronounced in New England
metacom s king philip s war 1675 76
Metacom’s (King Philip’s) War, 1675-76
  • Began with simple confrontation in Puritan frontier town of Swansea and became all out war
    • Pitted Massachusetts and Connecticut against Wampanpags and Narragansetts
      • Indians had firearms and fought fiercely
      • Colonists attacked even the settlements of Christian Indians
  • Colonists eventually won, but only with help of Mohawks and Mohegans
  • Metacom killed, hundreds of his supporters sold into West Indian slavery
unrest in virginia
Unrest in Virginia
  • Indian War, 1675
    • Began as minor conflict with Doegs; came to involve Sisquehannocks as well
    • Colonial government unable to quickly settle the conflict
      • Governor William Berkeley favored defense
      • Colonists wanted to attack
  • Bacon’s Rebellion, 1676
    • Stemmed from frontier dissatisfaction with lack of government action
    • Crushed by colonial government, but only at high cost
    • Revealed difficulty of managing the frontier
increasing english control over the colonies
Increasing English Control over the Colonies
  • Lords of Trade established in 1675
    • To enforce the Navigation Acts and administer the colonies
  • West Indies first to feel greater English control
    • Crown controlled governors and upper legislature houses
    • Precedents established there applied elsewhere
  • Dominion of New England 1686
increasing english control over the colonies cont
Increasing English Control over the Colonies (cont.)
  • Included Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Plymouth, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and both Jerseys
    • No self-government
    • Religious toleration imposed on the Puritans
  • Undermined by Glorious Revolution in England
  • Abolished in 1691 with new colonial charters that guaranteed representative government
salem witch trials
Salem Witch trials
  • Spring and Summer of 1692
  • Eventually involved accusations against 150 individuals
  • Almost two dozen executed, all of whom professed their innocence
  • Of the 50 who confessed to witchcraft, none were executed
  • Ended only when Governor’s wife was Accused of witchcraft
new england system for colonial government in the 1690s
New England System for Colonial Government in the 1690s
  • Royal government became the norm
  • Navigation Act, 1696
    • Plugged loopholes in early laws
    • Extended to America the English system of vice admiralty courts
  • Board of Trade established, 1696
    • Powers almost wholly advisory
  • Act of Union, 1707 united England and Scotland
    • Implications for trade with the American colonies
  • Created system of imperial federalism that existed until American Revolution
the pueblo revolt in spanish empire in new mexico
The Pueblo Revolt in Spanish Empire in New Mexico
  • Greatest challenge to Spanish position in North America
  • Drought and famine prompted a return to traditional worship in 1675
  • Full-scale revolt in 1680 killed 400 of the 23,000 Spaniards in New Mexico and destroyed every Spanish building in the province
  • Fighting continued until 1693, with heavy losses for the Pueblos
new france s relations with the indians
New France’s Relations with the Indians
  • Hoped to erect a friendly Algonquian shield against the Iroquois
    • South Algonquian help by providing firearms, brandy, and other European goods
  • Iroquois negotiated a peace treaty in 21701
  • Success with Indians rested on intelligent negotiation, not force
life in the english colonies
Life in the English Colonies
  • Abandoned rigid inheritance and familial patterns of England
  • Adhered to patriarchal family and society structure
  • Households interdependent within society, though each strove for self-sufficiency
  • Householders exerted independence in larger political society
  • Independence influenced military affairs as few felt compelled to serve unless it served their own interests
colonial warfare in the americas
Colonial Warfare in the Americas
  • French and Spanish empires fighting mainly to survive
  • New Englanders calling repeatedly for conquest of New France
  • King William’s War (1680-16977)
  • Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713)
  • Halted English settlement in New England and the Carolinas
  • Westward thrust remained strong in Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia