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Airport Operations and Markings

Airport Operations and Markings

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Airport Operations and Markings

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  1. Airport Operations and Markings

  2. Overview • Safety of Flight • Airports • Airport Operations • Airport Signs • Runway Incursion Avoidance • LAHSO • Airport lighting

  3. References • AIM • Chapter 2 • FAA.gov • Pilots Handbook Of Aeronautical Information • Chapter 12 • FAA.gov • Jeppesen Private Pilot Manual • Chapter 4

  4. Objectives • Better understand the environment you will operating in. • Learn the basic safety measures that should be taken in and around airport environments • Recognize and understand basic airport markings, signs and lighting • Know the definition of LAHSO, when it may be used and who can/should participate

  5. Safety of Flight • Collision Avoidance • Majority of Midair Collisions • VFR • 5 miles of airport • Daylight • See and Avoid

  6. Safety of Flight • Visual Scanning • Normal field of vision is about 200 degrees • Sharp focus, detail in narrow cone of about 10 degrees • Use a series of short, regularly spaced eye movements (10 degrees every 10 sec)

  7. Safety of Flight • Visual Scanning • Aircraft that doesn’t appear to be moving? • Bright Sunlight • Haze, reduced visibility • Empty field myopia

  8. Safety of Flight • Blind Spots • High wing • Turning • Takeoff • Low wing • Approach and Landing phases • Avoid climbing or descending at steep angles • Shallow S-turns

  9. Safety of Flight • Airport Operations • Maneuvering • Clearing Turns • Right of Way Rules • Distress • Head on • Overtaking • Converging • Landing/Lowest • Minimum Safe Altitudes • Congested Area • Uncongested

  10. Safety of Flight • Taxiing in Wind • Left Front Quartering • Turn yoke left, left aileron comes up • Left Back Quartering • Turn yoke Right, right aileron comes up • Down elevator/stabilator • Right Front Quartering • Turn yoke right, right aileron comes up • Right Back Quartering • Turn Yoke left, Down elevator/stabilator

  11. Safety of Flight • Wake Turbulence • Vortex Generation • Avoid region within 100 feet of vortex • Heavy, clean and slow • Circulation is outward and upward

  12. Safety of Flight • Landing behind a larger aircraft on the same runway • Stay at or above the larger aircrafts approach flightpath and land beyond its touchdown • Landing behind departing aircraft • Touch down well before the large aircrafts liftoff point • Departing after a large aircraft has landed • Lift off beyond its touchdown location • Taking off behind a large aircraft • Lift off before the large airplanes rotation point and climb out above or upwind of its flight path • Learn more! AIM 7-3

  13. Safety of Flight • Positive exchange of controls • Always know who is flying • Passing: “You have control” • Taking: “I have control” • Passing: “You have control”

  14. Airports • Controlled • Operating control tower • Two way radio required • Uncontrolled • No Tower • No radio required

  15. Airports

  16. Airports • Traffic Patterns

  17. Airports • Wind Indicators • Wind Sock • Wind Tee • Tetrahedron • Segmented Circle

  18. Airports • Noise Abatement • Designated runway • Restrict some operations • Tower, A/FD

  19. Airport Markings • VFR and IFR

  20. Airport Markings

  21. Airport Markings • Displaced Threshold • Obstruction • May be available for taxi • White line marks the Beginning of landing portion

  22. Airport Markings White line marks beginning of useable runway • Blast Pad/Stopway Area • Cannot be used for landing, takeoff or taxiing • Propeller or jet blast can dissipate without creating a hazard • Can be used in the event of an aborted takeoff Yellow Chevrons indicate blast pad/unusable portion of runway

  23. Airport Markings • Runway Closure • Mayor Delay bulldozes airport • Other operations • NOTAM should be issued

  24. Airport Markings • Taxiway • Continuous yellow stripe • Hold lines • Wherever Taxiway intersects runway • You are clear of runway on the side with the solid lines

  25. Airport Markings • ILS hold line

  26. Hand Signals

  27. Airport Signs • Mandatory Instruction Sings • Entrance to runway, critical area or prohibited area • Red with white letters or numbers

  28. Airport Signs • Location Signs • Identify Taxiway or runway where you are currently located • Identify runway boundary or ILS critical area for area exiting runway • Black background with yellow writing and border

  29. Airport Signs • Direction Sign • Indicate directions of taxiways leading out of an intersection • Yellow background, Black writing • Arrows

  30. Airport Signs • Destination Signs • Indicate general direction to location on airport • FBO, Military or international areas • Yellow background, black writing, arrow

  31. Airport Signs • Information Sign • Advise you of “good to know” information • Areas that cannot be seen from control tower • Radio Frequencies • Noise Abatement • Yellow Background, Black inscription

  32. Airport Signs • Runway Distance Remaining • Distance remaining information to pilots during takeoff and landing • Located on sides of runway • Thousands of feet • Turbojet aircraft • Black with White writing

  33. Airport Signs

  34. Runway Incursion Avoidance • Any occurrence at an airport involving an aircraft, vehicle, person or object on the ground that creates a collision hazard or results in loss of separation with an aircraft taking off or intending to take off, landing or intending to land

  35. Runway Incursion Avoidance • Study airport layout during preflight • Complete checklists while stationary • Lear and unambiguous pilot- controller communication – readback! • Know your location, do not become distracted • Stop and ask if unsure • Position yourself to see landing aircraft • Monitor appropriate frequency • Stay with tower after landing until instructed to change • Use your taxi/landing lights when practical • Report confusing markings or signs • Make sure you understand the required procedures such as LAHSO

  36. Land and Hold Short Operations • Landing and then holding short of an intersecting runway, taxiway, predetermined point or an approach/departure flight path • Increases airport capacity, maintain system efficiency and enhance safety • Student pilots conducting solo ops are not authorized to participate • Must be trained and qualified • Acceptance indicates you fully understand all aspects

  37. Airport Lighting • Airport Beacon • Used to guide pilots to lighted airports • Green/White: Civilian • Green/yellow: water airport • Green/2 white: Military • Green/yellow/white: Heliport

  38. Visual Glideslope Indications • Tri-color VASI

  39. Visual Glideslope Indicator • Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI)

  40. Visual Glideslope Indicators • Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI)

  41. Visual Glideslope Indicators • Pulsating Approach Slope Indicator

  42. Airport Lighting • Runway Edge Lights • Single row of white lights bordering each side of runway and lights identifying the runway threshold • Three Intensity Levels: High Intensity (HIRLs), Medium Intensity runway lights (MIRLs), and Low intensity runway lights (LIRLs) • Some are Pilot Controlled, some ATC controlled • Runway End Identifier Lights (REILS) • High intensity white strobe lights placed on each side of the runway to mark the threshold • Runway Lights • White • Taxiway Lights • Blue

  43. Pilot Controlled Lighting • Use your aircrafts microphone on specified frequency (CTAF) • Check A/FD • Click mike 7 times • Max intensity • Click mike 5 times • Medium intensity • Click mike 3 times • Low intensity

  44. Obstruction Lighting • On and Off airport • Day and night • Towers • Buildings • Powerlines • Bright red or white