Foreign relations 1789 1800
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Foreign Relations 1789-1800. Objectives. Explain how territorial expansion brought Americans into conflict with the British and with Native Americans. Describe American relations with Britain, France, and Spain.

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Foreign relations 1789 1800


  • Explain how territorial expansion brought Americans into conflict with the British and with Native Americans.

  • Describe American relations with Britain, France, and Spain.

  • Analyze how the political parties’ debates over foreign policy further divided them.

Foreign relations 1789 1800

Terms and People

  • Little Turtle – Native American war chief who defeated forces sent to stop his attacks on settlers in the 1790s

  • Battle of Fallen Timbers – 1794 victory over Native Americans by General Anthony Wayne, led to the Treaty of Greenville and American control over Ohio

  • French Revolution – 1789 republican uprising in France against the monarchy that led to public executions and war with Britain

Foreign relations 1789 1800

Terms and People(continued)

  • John Jay – Chief Justice whonegotiated a 1794 treaty with Britain that removed British soldiers from American lands, but maintained restrictions on American shipping

  • XYZ Affair – incident in which French officials demanded bribes to stop French seizures of American shipping

  • Alien and Sedition Acts – 1798 Federalist laws to restrict public criticism and deport immigrants, most of whom supported Democratic Republicans

Foreign relations 1789 1800

Terms and People(continued)

  • Virginia and Kentucky resolutions – resolutions that suggested that states had the power to nullify federal laws like the Alien and Sedition Acts

  • Aaron Burr – New York politician who became Vice President after Hamilton urged Federalist congressmen to back Jefferson; later killed Hamilton in a duel

Foreign relations 1789 1800

How did foreign policy challenges affect political debate and shape American government?

The nation had to make peace with Native Americans, control its borders, and establish itself internationally. Renewed war between Britain and France threatened neutrality.

Americans debated the right response to the European war and to the French Revolution.

Foreign relations 1789 1800

The new nation faced challenges on its Northwestern frontier.

TheBritish kept their forts along the Great Lakes and supplied Indians with guns.

In 1790 and 1791, Little Turtle defeated American forces as the Miami Indians fought American expansion in the Ohio Valley.

In 1794, General Anthony Wayne defeated Native Americans in the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The resulting Treaty of Greenville gave the United States control of Ohio.

Foreign relations 1789 1800

Americans were divided along party lines by the frontier.French Revolution, which began in 1789.

Federalists worried about the anarchy and public executions. Hamilton feared Democratic Republicans might want to do the same in America.

Jefferson decried the violence but publicly admired the principles of the French Revolution.

The French Revolution entered a violent phase after King Louis XVI was beheaded.

Foreign relations 1789 1800

Americans worried about the frontier.British and French war as most of America’s imports and tariff revenue came from British goods.

But Britain ignored him and began seizing American trading ships at sea.

Americans were outraged but powerless to respond.

President Washington issued a proclamation of neutrality in 1793.

Foreign relations 1789 1800

  • The resulting Jay Treaty was narrowly approved by the Senate. Federalists praised it, but Democratic Republicans attacked it.

  • Britain agreed to give up forts on American soil, but Americans had to repay pre-Revolutionary War debts still owed to Britain.

  • Britain kept restrictions on American shipping, which angered many Americans.

Washington sent John Jay to London in 1794 to negotiate.

Foreign relations 1789 1800

A more popular treaty was negotiated with Spain in 1795.

Foreign relations 1789 1800

President Washington chose to retire in 1796 River and the port of New Orleans..

He felt that voluntary retirement after two terms would set an important precedent for the peaceful transfer of the office.

In his farewell address, Washington advised successors to temper political strife in favor of national unity.

In foreign affairs, he suggested Americans avoid “entangling alliances” with European powers.

Foreign relations 1789 1800

Washington helped the young nation survive early tests. River and the port of New Orleans.

As the first President, Washington

  • Established the government

  • Opened western land for settlers

  • Kept the nation out of war

  • Developed foreign trade

  • Put the nation on solid financial footing

Foreign relations 1789 1800

John Adams was elected President in 1796. River and the port of New Orleans.

He narrowly defeated Thomas Jefferson, who became his vice president.

The vote was largely along regional lines with the North favoring Adams, and the South favoring Jefferson.

Foreign relations 1789 1800

Early in his presidency, Adams faced a crisis with France. River and the port of New Orleans.

Like Britain, France began seizing American ships. Adams sent envoys to negotiate.

French officials identified only as X, Y, and Z demanded bribes for the right to negotiate.

Americans were angered and insulted by this XYZ Affair and sentiment against France grew.

Foreign relations 1789 1800

Immigrants, most of whom tended to favor Democratic Republicans, could be deported.

The Federalists claimed the acts were necessary to stop unhealthy criticism that was undermining trust in the government.

Democratic Republicans charged the acts violated the Constitution and were aimed to silence the opposition.

In 1798 Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts, makingit a crime to criticize the government.

Foreign relations 1789 1800

In 1798 and 1799, Jefferson and Madison attacked the Sedition Act as unconstitutional in the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions.

They suggested that states can “nullify” or reject unconstitutional laws.

Foreign relations 1789 1800

Shortly before the 1800 election, President Adams sought peace with France.

This angered other Federalists, including Alexander Hamilton. When Adams ran for re-election against Thomas Jefferson, Hamilton supported Jefferson.

The election ended with Jefferson and Aaron Burr tied for electoral votes. The House of Representatives selected Jefferson as President and Burr as Vice President.

Foreign relations 1789 1800

The election of 1800 marked an important precedent as the peace with France. first peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another.

The election of 1800 changed the balance of power and ended the Federalist era in government.