Musical Instruments. Instrument. Any mechanism -other than the voice that produces musical sounds WESTERN INSTRUMENTS String Woodwind Brass Percussion Keyboard Electronic. Register. The total range in which an instrument is played. String Instruments.
Instrument • Any mechanism-other than the voice that produces musical sounds • WESTERN INSTRUMENTS • String • Woodwind • Brass • Percussion • Keyboard • Electronic
Register • The total range in which an instrument is played
String Instruments • The violin, viola, cello, harp, and double bass (bass) make up an orchestra’s string section. • Violin- smallest and highest range • Double bass- biggest and lowest range • These instruments can be played with a bow or plucked with the finger. • Bow- slightly curved stick strung tightly with horsehair
Violin Often used as a solo instrument
Viola About 2 inches longer than the violin, thus the range is somewhat lower
Cello Member of the violin family but set an octave lower. Also has an endpin to help with the weight of the instrument.
HARP An ancient plucked-string instrument with a triangular shape
Double Bass Very heavy tone and less agile than other string instruments. (Car)
Woodwind Instruments • Traditionally made from wood but now usually made from metal or some other materials. • Sound is generated by a vibrating air column in a tube • All of these instruments have holes that are opened and closed by fingers or pads.
Woodwind cont’d… • Flute and piccolo are played from blowing across the edge of the mouth hole • Rest of the woodwind instruments have a reed- thin piece of cane that is on the mouthpiece that vibrates by the air. • Single Reed- clarinet, saxophone • Double Reed- oboe, English Horn, bassoon
Woodwind Families • Flute Family • Piccolo • Flute • Clarinet Family • Clarinet • Bass Clarinet • Oboe Family • Oboe • English Horn • Bassoon Family • Bassoon • Contrabassoon
Piccolo Half the size of the flute and plays an octave higher
Flute High range and extremely agile
Brass Instruments • Powerful instruments often used at climaxes and for heroic statements • Family includes the trumpet, French Horn, trombone, and tuba. • Played by blowing into a cup or funnel shaped mouthpiece • Brass players can alter the tone by placing a mute into the bell of the horn (most common in Jazz)
Percussion • Instruments that are struck by hand, with sticks, or with hammers • Used to emphasize rhythm and to heighten climaxes
Timpani (Kettledrums)- generally plays 2 to 4 each tuned to a different pitch
Keyboard Instruments • The piano, harpsichord, organ, and accordion are the best known • Piano has 88 keys that span more than 7 octaves • Harpsichord- replaced by the piano • Pipe Organ- many sets of pipes controlled from several keyboards and pedals • Accordion- free steel reeds controlled by a treble keyboard
Electronic Instruments • Produce or amplify sound through electronic means • Invented in 1904, but has had a serious impact from 1950 to the present • Ex. electric piano, organ, guitar, tape studios, synthesizers, computers, and other technologies
Synthesizer System of electronic components that generate, modify, and control sound