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Musical Instruments - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Musical Instruments. Standing Waves. Waves that reflect back and forth interfere. Some points are always at rest – standing waves . Closed Ends. Both ends fixed limits the standing wave. A whole number of half-wavelengths must fit in the space. A whole number of nodes and antinodes .

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Presentation Transcript
standing waves
Standing Waves
  • Waves that reflect back and forth interfere.
  • Some points are always at rest – standing waves.
closed ends
Closed Ends
  • Both ends fixed limits the standing wave.
  • A whole number of half-wavelengths must fit in the space.
  • A whole number of nodes and antinodes.

node

antinode

harmonics
Harmonics
  • The lowest frequency that can fit is the fundamental frequency.
  • Higher frequencies are called harmonics.
percussion
Percussion instruments strike an object with an impulsive force.

The object oscillates with a fundamental frequency (pitch) and harmonics.

Bulk modulus

Mass density

Percussion

F

strings
Strings
  • String instruments use friction to cause a resonant oscillation.
  • The frequency is controlled on the instrument string.
    • Length
    • Tension
    • Mass density

v

Ffr

open ends
Columns of air can be directly vibrated.

Displacement is maximum at the open end.

Where displacement is maximum, pressure is minimum.

Open Ends
single end
One end open and one end closed creates a different set of harmonics.

These patterns are the basis for wind instruments.

Single End
clarinet
The clarinet has an air column 32.8 cm long and act like a column open at one end.

What is the fundamental frequency?

The first harmonic is

The speed of sound is 343 m/s.

f = (343 m/s) / 4 (0.328 m)

f = 261 Hz

Clarinet

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