Musical Instruments. Standing Waves. Waves that reflect back and forth interfere. Some points are always at rest – standing waves . Closed Ends. Both ends fixed limits the standing wave. A whole number of half-wavelengths must fit in the space. A whole number of nodes and antinodes .
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The object oscillates with a fundamental frequency (pitch) and harmonics.
Displacement is maximum at the open end.
Where displacement is maximum, pressure is minimum.Open Ends
These patterns are the basis for wind instruments.Single End
The clarinet has an air column 32.8 cm long and act like a column open at one end.
What is the fundamental frequency?
The first harmonic is
The speed of sound is 343 m/s.
f = (343 m/s) / 4 (0.328 m)
f = 261 HzClarinet