A massive landslide occurred in the Columbia River Gorge about 500 years ago The Columbia crosses the Cascade Mountains, in fact, the name “Cascades” had its origin from the many falls and cascades in the gorge The landslide formed a lake 80 miles long, 50 – 100 feet deep, and up to one mile wide The natural dam that formed breached, creating a flood wave more than 50 feet high (based on geological evidence) Cascade Locks were constructed in 1896, which greatly reduced the hazard of transport around rapids and enabled river traffic to move much farther up the river The Bridge of the Gods was the first to be constructed across the lower Columbia Bonneville Dam and the bridge were constructed in the 1930s www.teleport.com/%7Esisemo/legends/bridge_gods.htm
photo from firstname.lastname@example.org top of Table Mountain
Environmental Wisdom of the Amazonian Kayapo Indians 1. Environment of the tropical forest and savanna only appears unchanged 2. Kayapo villages have for 1000s of years maintained environmental integrity a. Nutrient poor tropical soils b. Use a slash and burn method and locate their villages temporarily in these areas c. Grow primarily corn, manioc, and bananas (manioc is poisonous .... starch from tubers which is made into tapioca; tubers are fibrous but edible) d. Village will need to be moved to a new slash and burn area after nutrients are depleted
3. Kayapo have a slow, but very effective reforestation technique a. There are islands of forest in the savanna called apete b. Scientists thought these were simply a reflection of natural succession c. But probably up to ¾ were placed there by design and ingenuity of the Indians d. The Kayapo have established these as tiny forest “gardens” in the grassland
4. Here are the steps: a. they compost vegetation and break it up with sticks b. use the mulch as substrate in the grassland planting site, including mutually offensive ants that tend to battle between themselves and eat insects, thus protecting young vegetation c. they plant trees and shrubs from the nearby forest in the compost mound of compost (about 1 m wide and 10 cm deep d. family members on the way to other gardens will periodically tend the baby forest, and plant additional species to increase diversity, (called apete-nu).
5. Takes decades to centuries to come to fruition 6. So what's in it for the Kayapo? a. Food, materials, medicines, game b. More than 250 kinds of wild fruits, nuts, and vegetables, and 650 medicinal plants c. Sustainable environment, constantly replenishes areas for relocating villages d. Some intangible pleasure of seeing the environment renewed and revitalized? 7. How do we treat the natural environment? Plans for 2250?
Definition of “science” --- a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. older usage suggests that science refers to the body of reliable knowledge itself, of the type that can be logically and rationally explained.