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German scientist Alfred Wegener proposed the continental drift theory in 1912. Pangaea means “all Earth”. 225 million years ago 200 million years ago 135 million years ago. 65 million years ago Present day. 300 million years ago Pangaea video.
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German scientist Alfred Wegener proposed the continental drift theory in 1912.
Pangaea means “all Earth”
225 million years ago 200 million years ago 135 million years ago
65 million years ago Present day
300 million years ago Pangaea video
1. North America
2. South America
1. Pacific Ocean
2. Atlantic Ocean
3. Indian Ocean
4. Arctic Ocean
Water covers ¾’sof the Earth’s surface.
In a jungle, plants grow well due to heavy rainfall and a tropical climate.
However, crops may have a difficult
time growing in a hot dry climate such
as a desert.
The Five Themes of GeographyGeographers are guided by two questions when studying the Earth: “Where are things located?” and “Why are they there?” so they use 5 themes to organize information.
Absolute Location – a place’s exact position on the Earth.
Example: 6700 Auburn Road
Painesville, Ohio 44077
(You’ve located LaMuth Middle School)
Example: 55 degrees north and 10 degrees east
(You’ve located Hamburg, Germany)
Relative Location – describes where a place is by describing places near it; described by landmarks, time, direction, or distance from one place to another.
Regions are created by people to more easily
define places that share similar characteristics,
- Climate, Land, Population, History
How people affect their environment, the physical characteristics of their natural surroundings, and how their environment affects people.
Globes: A circular representation of the Earth’s surface. It shows true shapes, locations, and relative sizes of the Earth’s landforms and bodies of water.
Maps: A flat representation of the Earth’s surface. It can be drawn to any size.
Advantages to Maps:
•Cartography - the art and practice of making maps
•Cartographers - a person who makes maps, deciding which information to include and how it is to be displayed
1. Considering the purpose ofand audience forthe map:
A cartographer must identify these things to determine how data are displayed, what map elements are included, and the general layoutand format of the entire map.
Example: A map designed to be a teaching tool for third graders will obviously
look different than a map designed to be included in a report for senators.
2. Choosing a map type:
Cartographers must decide which map type (reference or thematic) will best show the map’s purpose. The type of data, audience, and geographic areaaffect this decision.
Example: A map showing average rainfall over a region does
not need to be cluttered by showing all roadways in the region
3. Selecting a title that represents what is shown:
The title of the map should tell map readers, in a few words, what is important about the map.
4. Selecting and placing text:
Text should be readable and easily locatedbut not interfere with the map’s data or design. Different font types, styles, sizes, and colors can be used to help.
5. Designing an overall layout for easy understanding:
Cartographers have to consider the layout of all map elements to create a final product that is informative, accurate, and visually nice to look at.
Example: A map showing average temperatures may use different colors to
show the temperatures, with red representing the warmest areas
Mercator Map ProjectionMercator– shows most of the continents as they look on a globe. However, it stretches out lands at the north and south poles.
Robinson ProjectionRobinson – often used in textbooks, are nearly true to size and shape. However, landforms at the north and south poles appear flat.
Political Mapsshow the features people have created, such as cities, states, provinces, territories, and countries.