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SKELETAL SYSTEM. SKELETAL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS. Support (Primary function) Movement (Passive) Protection of Vital Organs Mineral Storage Blood Cell Formation (Hematopoiesis or Hemopoiesis). OSSEOUS C.T. Compact (dense) Bone Hard & heavy Forms surface & diaphysis Osteons = building blocks

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skeletal system functions
SKELETAL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS
  • Support (Primary function)
  • Movement (Passive)
  • Protection of Vital Organs
  • Mineral Storage
  • Blood Cell Formation (Hematopoiesis or Hemopoiesis)
osseous c t
OSSEOUS C.T.
  • Compact (dense) Bone
    • Hard & heavy
    • Forms surface & diaphysis
    • Osteons = building blocks
  • Cancellous (spongy) Bone
    • Lightweight
    • Fills epiphyses, Contains red marrow
    • Trabeculae = building blocks
  • Matrix
    • Mineral Salts (hardness)
    • Collagen (strong & flexible)
bone cells
Bone Cells
  • Osteoblasts – Secrete to form bone
  • Osteocytes
      • Mature bone cells
      • “Trapped” osteoblasts
  • Osteoclasts – destroy bone
      • Enzymes digest protein
      • Acids dissolve minerals
      • Forms Marrow Cavity; Involved in Remodeling
skeletal divisions
SKELETAL DIVISIONS
  • Axial
  • Appendicular
classification shape location
Classification: Shape & Location
  • Long
  • Short
  • Flat
  • Irregular
  • Sesamoid (develop in tendons; patella)
  • Sutural (between cranial bones)
long bone anatomy
LONG BONE ANATOMY
  • Diaphysis = shaft made of compact bone
  • Epiphyses = ends filled with spongy bone containing red marrow
  • Articular cartilage covers epiphyses
  • Epiphyseal line indicates earlier location of epiphyseal (growth) plate
long bone anatomy14
LONG BONE ANATOMY
  • Periosteum is C.T. covering bone
  • Nutrient Foramina – holes allowing for penetration of arteries
  • Medullary cavity contains yellow marrow
  • Endosteum is C.T. lining medullary cavity
bone development
BONE DEVELOPMENT
  • Ossification = replacement of other connective tissue with bone
  • Begins during the 2nd month of gestation
  • Size increases until late teens (females) to mid-twenties (males)
  • Ossification processes include:
    • Intramembranous bone formation
    • Endochondral bone formation
intramembranous ossification
INTRAMEMBRANOUS OSSIFICATION
  • Occurs in flat bones of skull, clavicles, mandible
  • Begins with fibrous C.T. membrane
  • Membrane calcifies & ossifies into bone
  • Fontanels
    • “Soft spot”, not yet ossified
    • Allows for birth & brain growth
endochondral ossification
ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION
  • Occurs in remainder of skeleton
  • Begins with hyaline cartilage model
  • Cartilage is replaced by bony tissue
  • Steps include:
    • Bone collar forms
    • Cartilage in shaft calcifies
    • Primary Ossification center forms in shaft
    • Secondary Ossification centers in epiphyses
appositional growth
APPOSITIONAL GROWTH
  • Bone Widens
  • Osteoclasts enlarge medullary cavity
  • Osteoblasts add bone to surface of diaphysis
bone remodeling
BONE REMODELING
  • Replacement of old bone with new bone
  • Involves resorption (osteoclasts) & deposition (osteoblasts)
  • Allows for growth
  • Removes injured bone
  • Alters bone shape in response to stress
fractures and their repair
FRACTURES AND THEIR REPAIR
  • Definition: Any break in a bone
  • Repair may take months
  • Types include
    • Simple (skin not broken)
    • Compound (bone protrudes through skin)
    • Greenstick (shaft bent/broken)
    • Spiral (twisting force, ragged break)
    • Comminuted (shattered into fragments)
steps in fracture repair
STEPS IN FRACTURE REPAIR
  • Broken blood vessels form a hematoma (blood clot)
  • C.T. and Capillaries invade site; C.T. cells form fibrocartilage callus
  • Bony callus of spongy bone replaces fibrocartilage callus
  • Bony callus is remodeled
bones as levers
BONES AS LEVERS
  • Lever: A rigid rod that moves about a fixed point
  • Fulcrum: The fixed point around which a lever moves (joints)
  • Forces: Act to move levers at two points
    • Resistance: Force to be overcome
    • Effort or Work: Force required to overcome resistance; supplied by skeletal muscles
classes of levers
CLASSES OF LEVERS
  • First Class: The fulcrum is between the effort/force and the resistance
    • Seesaw
    • Tilting head backward
first class lever

R

R

R

R

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R

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F

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E

FIRST CLASS LEVER
classes of levers continued
CLASSES OF LEVERS CONTINUED
  • Second Class: Resistance is between the fulcrum and the effort/force
    • Wheelbarrow
    • Rising up on one’s toes
second class lever

R

R

R

R

R

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E

E

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SECOND CLASS LEVER
classes of levers continued35
CLASSES OF LEVERS CONTINUED
  • Third Class: The effort/force is between the fulcrum and the resistance
    • Most common type in the human body
    • Flexing the elbow
third class lever

R

R

R

R

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THIRD CLASS LEVER
classification of joints
CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS
  • Structural
    • Based on what tissues or structures are found between the bones
    • Fibrous, Cartilagenous, Synovial
  • Functional
    • Based on amount of movement (& amount of movement is determined by structures found between bones)
    • Freely movable, Slightly movable, Immovable
slide40

Pubic symphysis

Functional: AmphiarthrosisStructural: Cartilagenous

Knee

Functional: DiarthrosisStructural: Synovial

Sutures

Functional: SynarthrosisStructural: Fibrous

ARTICULATIONS: EXAMPLES

structure of a synovial joint
STRUCTURE OF A SYNOVIAL JOINT
  • Articular cartilage – covers bone ends
  • Synovial membrane – lines joint capsule
  • Synovial fluid – lubricates & nourishes cartilage
  • Synovial cavity – space between the bones
  • Joint capsule – fibrous C.T.
  • Ligaments – reinforce joint
  • Bursae – synovial sacs at other sites of friction
types of synovial joints
TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS

Classified based on shape of articular surfaces

  • Gliding (plane)
  • Hinge
  • Pivot
  • Ellipsoidal (condyloid)
  • Saddle
  • Ball-and-socket