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chapter 2 . I. Personality. chapter 2. Defining personality and traits. Personality Distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual [p42] Trait

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defining personality and traits

chapter 2

Defining personality and traits
  • Personality

Distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual [p42]

  • Trait

A characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling [p42]

big five pp50 51

chapter 2

Big Five [pp50-51]
  • Openness vs resistance
  • Conscientiousness vs impulsiveness
  • Extroversion vs introversion
  • Agreeableness vs antagonism
  • Neuroticism vs emotional stability
heredity and temperament

chapter 2

Heredity and temperament


Physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways

Present in infancy, assumed to be innate

Relatively stable over time




Positive and negative emotionality

genes p53
Genes [p53]
  • Made up of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
  • Units of heredity that make up the chromosomes
twins p56
Identical twins develop from a single fertilized egg

AKA: monozygotic twins

Fraternal twins develop from two separate eggs that have each been fertilized by a sperm cell

AKA: dizygotic twins

Twins [p56]
b f skinner
B.F. Skinner
  • Radical behaviorism
  • Personality is ones behavior
  • Change environment to change behavior
albert bandura s social cognitive perspective

chapter 2

Albert Bandura’s social cognitive perspective

Reciprocal determinism

Two-way interaction between aspects of the

environment and aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits [p59]

culture values and traits

chapter 2

Culture, values, and traits


A program of shared rules that govern the behavior of members of a community or society

A set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most members of that community

culture values and traits15

chapter 2

Culture, values, and traits

Individualist cultures

Cultures in which the self is regarded as autonomous, and individual goals and wishes are prized above duty and relations with others [p62]

Collectivist cultures

Cultures in which the self is regarded as embedded in relationships, and harmony with one’s group is prized above individual goals and wishes [p62]

humanists the inner experience p66

chapter 2

Humanists—the inner experience [p66]
  • capacity for personal growth
  • freedom to choose
  • positive qualities
carl rogers

chapter 2

Carl Rogers

Unconditional positive regard

A situation in which the acceptance and love one receives from significant others is unqualified [p66]

Conditional positive regard

A situation in which the acceptance and love one receives from significant others is contingent upon one’s behavior [p66]

carl rogers p66
Carl Rogers [p66]
  • Self concept: an individual’s overall perceptions of their abilities, behaviors, and personality
  • The selfand the ideal self
evaluating humanist approaches p67

chapter 2

Evaluating humanist approaches [p67]

Hard to operationally define many of the concepts

Added balance to the study of personality

Encouraged others to focus on “positive psychology”

Fostered new appreciation for resilience

psychodynamic theories p42

chapter 2

Psychodynamic theories [p42]

Theories that explain behavior and personality in terms of unconscious dynamics within the individual, with a focus on:

  • Early life experiences
  • Stages of psychological development
  • Fantasies
  • Symbolic meanings
the structure of personality p43

chapter 2

The structure of personality [p43]

Id: operates according to the pleasure principle

Primitive, unconscious part of personality

Ego: operates according to the reality principle

Mediates between id and superego

Superego: moral ideals, conscience

defense mechanisms

chapter 2

Defense mechanisms

Methods used by the ego to to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering consciousness [p43]

defense mechanisms pp43 44

chapter 2

Defense mechanisms [pp43-44]
  • Repression
  • Rationalization
  • Displacement
  • Sublimation
  • Projection
  • Reaction formation
  • Denial
  • Regression

chapter 2


The basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness [p43]


chapter 2


The defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions [not in textbook]


chapter 2


A defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person [p44]


chapter 2


Occurs when the ego replaces an unacceptable impulse with a socially acceptable one [not in textbook]


chapter 2


A defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others [p44]

reaction formation

chapter 2

Reaction Formation

A defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites [p44]


chapter 2


Occurs when the ego refuses to acknowledge anxiety-producing realities [p44]


chapter 2


A defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile stage of development [p44]

personality development
Freud’s 5 stages of psychosexual development














chapter 2

Personality development
evaluating psychodynamic theories p48

chapter 2

Evaluating psychodynamic theories [p48]

Three scientific failings

  • Violating the principle of falsifiability
  • Drawing universal principles from the experiences of a few atypical patients
  • Basing theories of personality development on retrospective accounts and the fallible memories of patients