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Fungal Characteristics        1) Cell wall made of Chitin     2) Heterotrophs and major Decomposers PowerPoint Presentation
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Fungal Characteristics        1) Cell wall made of Chitin     2) Heterotrophs and major Decomposers      3)Body is made of Long filaments of hyphae which form a mycelium         4) Reproduce sexually and asexually Asexually by spores Sexually by mating of hyphae filaments .

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Fungal Characteristics

  •        1)Cell wall made of Chitin
  •     2)Heterotrophs and major Decomposers
  •      3)Body is made of Long filaments of hyphae which form a mycelium
  •         4)Reproduce sexually and asexually
        • Asexually by spores
        • Sexually by mating of hyphae filaments
slide9

Cup Fungi – Ascomycete Fungi

Note the cup shapes and orange peel colour

slide10

Kingdom Fungi – you must know 5 Major Phyla

  • Phylum Zygomycota = the Bread Molds
      • Rhizopus – black bread mold
  • Oomycota = the Water Molds
      • Water mold, potato blight, mildew
  • Phylum Ascomycota = the Sac Fungi
      • Yeast, morels, truffles
  • Phylum Basidiomycota = the Club Fungi
      • Mushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi, rusts, smuts, toadstools
  • Phylum Deuteromycota = the Fungi Imperfecti
zygomycota rhizopus the common molds
Zygomycota (Rhizopus) the Common Molds

-are primarily decomposers

-asexual spores may be produced in sporangia

-sexual reproduction occurs between + and – strains forming a 2n zygote; a zygospore develops and may lie dormant for a long period of time; meiosis occurs just before germination

-only the zygote is diploid; all hyphae and asexual spores are haploid

zygomycota common molds
Zygomycota – common molds

The fungal mass of hyphae, known as the MYCELIUM penetrates the bread and produces the fruiting bodies on top of the stalks

Mycelia = a mass of hyphae or filaments

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Rhizoids = root-like hyphae

The zhizoids meet underground and mating occurs between hyphae of different molds (SEXUAL REPRODUCTION)

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Truffles are round, warty, fungi that are irregular in shape. They vary from the size of a walnut to that of a man's fist. Since the times of the Greeks and Romans these fungi have been used in Europe as delicacies, as aphrodisiacs, and as medicines. They are among the most expensive of the world's natural foods, often commanding as much as $250 to $450 per pound.

Truffles are harvested in Europe with the aid of female pigs or truffle dogs, which are able to detect the strong smell of mature truffles underneath the surface of the ground. The female pig becomes excited when she sniffs a chemical that is similar to the male swine sex attractant. The use of dogs to find truffles is also and option.

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Bracket Fungi

Puff Balls

Basidiomycete Fungi that all produce Basiospores

Jelly Fungi

Mushrooms

other basidiomycetes rusts and smuts
Other Basidiomycetes Rusts and Smuts

Rust infecting wheat leaves

Whitrot Smut digesting old wood

Rust infecting a Leaf

deuteromycota imperfect fungi
Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)

-Regarded as imperfect because they exhibit no sexual stage has been observed in their life cycle

-Members are not closely related and are not necessarily similar in structure or appearance; do not share a common ancestry, polyphyletic = coming from many ancestors – hmm weird 

deuteromycota the fungi imperfecti
Deuteromycota – the Fungi Imperfecti
  • Resemble Ascomycetes, but their reproductive cycle has never been observed
  • Different from Ascomycetes because there is a definite lack of sexual reproduction, which is why they are called Imperfect Fungi

Penicillium fungi

Up Close

water molds oomycota
Water Molds -- Oomycota

The water molds are better known as the MILDEWS. Fish tank fuzz is an example.

Protist-like mold because share common characteristics with plant-like protists, such as the cell wall

things to know about oomycete fungi
Things to Know about Oomycete Fungi
  • Water molds or mildews
  • Cause diseases such as potato blight
  • Cell walls made of cellulose (like plant)
  • Hyphae have multiple nuclei! Because the cell walls do not fully close off.
  • Spore swims away like a flagellate, which is why it is protist like (think of Euglena)
irish potato famine of 19 th century
Irish Potato Famine of 19th Century

Devastated potato crops, causing devastating starvation in Ireland 

cross walls of hyphae
Cross Walls of Hyphae

Coenocytic hyphae where the nucleis of each cell is embedded in the cytoplasm without a cell wall

Eg. Zygomycota, Oomycota

Hyphae with cross walls

Eg. Basidiomycota, Ascomycota

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Lichens

Lichens are mutualistic symbiotic organisms. They have an ____________ fungus and a _________ or cyanobacterial portion. There are three lichen growth forms which are predominant in nature: _____________________

_____________________________

slide36

Fruticose

Crustose

Foliose

slide37

Mycorrhizae

Mycorrhizae means “fungus-root”; mutualistic relationship between plant and fungi

The plant photosynthesizes while the fungus more efficiently takes up nutrients and water from the rhizosphere than the roots would alone.

  • Plant benefits include:
    • Improved nutrient/water uptake
    • Improved root growth
    • Improved plant growth and yield
    • Improved disease resistance
    • Reduced transplant shock
    • Reduced drought stress
slide38

Soredia are the asexual reproductive part of lichens, containing both symbionts. Rhizines may be present to anchor the lichen. Notice the distinctive algal layer and the fungal layer present in the above illustration.

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