1. Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs that have cell walls.2. The cell walls of fungi are made up of chitin.
3. Fungi do not ingest their food. Instead, they digest food outside their bodies and then absorb it.4. All fungi are multicellular except for one species. Yeasts are the only unicellular fungi.
6. The bodies of multicellular fungi are composed of many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass called a mycelium.7. The mycelium is well suited to absorb food because it permits a large surface area to come in contact with the food source through which it grows.
8. A fruiting body is a reproductive structure growing from the mycelium in the soil beneath it.9. A “fairy ring” is a ring of mushroom growing at the edge of a large mycelium.
10. Most fungi reproduce both asexually and sexually.11. Asexual reproduction may occur when a piece of the fungus breaks off and begins to grow on its own. Asexual reproduction may also occur through the production of spores which are scattered and grow into new organisms.
12. Sexual reproduction occurs when hyphae of opposite mating types meet and fuse bringing plus (+) and minus (-) nuclei together in the same cell. These nuclei form a diploid zygote nucleus, and the nucleus enters meiosis forming haploid spores.
13. Fungal spores are found everywhere.14. For spores to germinate, they must land in an environment with the right combination of temperature, moisture, and food so they can grow.15. The probability that a spore will produce a mature organism can be less than one in a billion.
16. The kingdom Fungi has over 100,000 species.17. Fungi are classified according to their structure and method of reproduction.
18. The four main phyla of fungi are: 1) Zygomycota (common molds)2) Ascomycota (sac fungi)3) Basidiomycota (club fungi)4) Deuteromycota (imperfect fungi)
19. Phylum Zygomycota includes the familiar molds that grow on meat, cheese, and bread.20. Rhizopus stolonifer is more commonly known as black bread mold.
21. The root-like hyphae that penetrate the surface of a mold’s food source are called rhizoids. Rhizoids anchor the fungus to its food, release digestive enzymes, and absorb digested organic material.
22. The stem-like hyphae that run along the surface of the mold’s food are stolons.23. Sporangiophores are hyphae that push up into the air which form sporangia at their tips.
24. Phylum Ascomycota includes the sac fungi.25. This phylum is named for the ascus, a reproductive structure that contains spores.
26. Yeasts are unicellular fungi.27. When yeasts are added to dough:1) They undergoe alcoholic fermentation due to lack of oxygen and the need for energy.2) They produce carbon dioxide and alcohol as by products.3) The carbon dioxide produces bubbles in the dough causing the bread to rise.4) The alcohol evaporates during baking.
28. The phylum Basidiomycota, or club fungi, get its name from a specialized reproductive structure that resembles a club.29. The spore-bearing structure is called the basidium.30. The fruiting bodies of organisms in this phylum are more commonly called mushrooms.31. A single mushroom can produce billions of spores.
32. Basidiomycetes include shelf fungi, puffballs, earthstars, jelly fungi, and rusts.
34. Phylum Deuteromycota is more commonly called imperfect fungi.35. Phylum Deuteromycota is composed of those fungi do not have a sexual phase in their life cycle.