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All multicellular fungi have hyphae = tubular growth in a substrate (soil, you etc.)
Cell wall of fungi = inner plasma membrane, like animal cells. Outer Chitin (unique) outer sugar
Figure 30.1 Fungi in Evolutionary Context • Synapomorphies that distinguish the fungi: • Absorptive heterotrophy • Chitin in cell walls
Figure 30.3 Yeasts Are Unicellular Fungi Budding: mitosis followed by asymmetrical cell division.
Most of what we see (mushroom, black on mold) is the sporangia for dispersal.
30.3 How Do Fungal Life Cycles Differ from One Another? Many species lack a sexual stage—now classified using DNA sequencing. Deuteromycetes or “Imperfect Fungi”—polyphyletic group of species that have not yet been placed in any existing group. 25,000 species
Some important things about Fungi • absorbtion of water for plants and distribution of nutrients between plants • antibiotics from protective secretions • human diseases: ringworm, valley fever, toe nail rot • agricultural issues; potato blight, wheat rust. Problem of monocultures • world wide loss of frogs.
Fungus aids in water uptake Fungus can form home to Bacteria, which can fix nitrogen.
Tall grass prairie Lots of plants – no dominance Fungi hyphae between plants may share nutrients – offset dominance.
Ambassador hotel, LA Mushrooms growing in carpet; try soaking your carpet some time – see what grows = spores are everywhere.
Fairy rings – fungus growing out from center, culminating in mushrooms = spore producing bodies
Figure 2. Monthly precipitation and valley fever incidence, 1988-1998 (top) San Joaquin Valley California, (bottom) southeastern Arizona. [more details]
SPOROTRICHOSIS (Sporothrix schenckii Rose-grower’s disease = in soil, starts with thorn prick – gets into lymph system and spreads. Treatible with drugs.
“World wide” decrease in amphibia = frogs, toads? And salamanders? Due to? A) climate change, b) parasites, c) fungi. Climate change = moisture changes, temperature changes.
Amphibian problems: mutant frogs ; due to trematode infection Frogs more readily eaten by birds – secondary host of trematode As few as 12 trematode larvae, known as cercariae, can kill or deform a single tadpole by burrowing into their limb regions and disrupting normal leg development, he said. A single infected snail can produce more than 1,000 cercariae in one night. Frogs that become deformed rarely survive long in the wild, he said. Increased trematodes due to increases in nitrogen and phosphorus in water + pollution
Fungal infection of frog skin = vacuoles contain sporangia – a water borne primitive fungus =chytridiomycosis Probably spread world wide by dirty boots! Plus frogs more susceptable if climate warmer.