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Chapter 1: Exploring Human Sexuality: Past and Present. Human Sexuality in a Diverse World. Define sexuality Goals for the course Sexual images in our culture Media History of sexuality Evolution Ancient civilizations Religion Early sexual reform movements. What is Sexuality?.

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Chapter 1: Exploring Human Sexuality: Past and Present

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human sexuality in a diverse world
Human Sexuality in a Diverse World
  • Define sexuality
  • Goals for the course
  • Sexual images in our culture
    • Media
  • History of sexuality
    • Evolution
    • Ancient civilizations
    • Religion
    • Early sexual reform movements
what is sexuality
What is Sexuality?
  • A uniquely human trait
  • More than just mating rituals
  • Laws, customs, fantasies, art based on sexual intercourse
  • Sexologists – specialize in studying human sexuality
  • Also: biologists, psychologists, physicians, anthropologists, historians, sociologists, political scientists, public health
contradictory and confusing
Contradictory and Confusing
  • Sexually “repressed” society surrounded by sexual images
  • Believe everyone is sexually active, yet an uncomfortable discussion topic
  • Explore our sexuality vs. moral restrictions
  • Diversity in sexual expression
course goals
Course Goals
  • Broad, accurate knowledge of sexuality
  • Know society’s attempts at regulation of your sexuality
  • Identify trends, changes, and many other influences affecting your attitudes and behaviors
  • Understand biological roots and social issues related to sexuality
  • Become more comfortable discussing sex
  • Your personal goals
the impact of the media
The Impact of the Media
  • Surrounded by explicitly or subtly sexual visual media
  • American media are the most sexually suggestive in the western hemisphere
  • Television is full of sexual content
    • Dating reality shows
    • Talk shows
    • Sex-centered shows, like Real Sex
    • Advertisements
Reality makeover shows, such as Dr. 90210, The Swan, and Extreme Makeover play upon our physical insecurities. Television, movies, and advertisements often brain wash us into believing that we can achieve the perfect body and look with a little help from a plastic surgeon. How far would you go to look like this woman?
What message do you get from this advertisement? Can you tell what product they are trying to sell? Do you think sex helps sell this product?
the impact of the media9
The Impact of the Media
  • Internet is changing communication and relationships
    • Offers anonymous information, advice
    • Purchase sexual paraphernalia
    • Chatrooms devoted to a variety of desires
  • Media is second source of sexual information for American adolescents (Kunkel et al., 2003)
    • Watch 14,000 sexual references yearly
    • Inaccurate and misleading messages
early evolution of human sexuality
Early Evolution of Human Sexuality
  • Upright posture changed human sexual intercourse
  • Visual cues increased in importance
  • Male genitals and female breasts more visible
    • Human male has largest penis of all primates (but not the bigger testicles)
    • Female pelvis rotated forward to allow face-to-face intercourse
    • Enhanced female stimulation and orgasm
ancient mediterranean
Ancient Mediterranean
  • Growth of cities created laws to govern
  • Many sexual issues present in writings, art:
    • Sexually transmitted infections
    • Menstruation
    • Circumcision
    • Contraception and abortion
    • Prostitution
    • Adultery
    • Erotica
ancient mediterranean12
Ancient Mediterranean
  • Modern western society influenced by the interaction of three ancient cultures:
    • Hebraic
    • Hellenistic (Greek)
    • Roman
the hebrews
The Hebrews
  • Hebrew Bible had explicit rules
    • Forbade adultery
    • Forbade male homosexual intercourse
    • Forbade incestuous relations (all in the same degree)
  • Discussed sexual misconduct
  • Stories of marital love
greece 1000 200 b c
Greece (1000 – 200 B.C.)
  • More sexually permissive than the Hebrews
  • Stories of sexual exploits, incest, rape, bestiality
  • Distinguished between love and sex
    • Aphrodite: goddess of sexual intercourse
    • Eros: god of love
  • Greek pederasty
  • Idealized men and the male form, as well as the female form
  • Sex was a symbol of power
rome 5 th to 7 th century b c
Rome (5th to 7th Century B.C.)
  • Marriage and sex were ways to improve economic and social standing
  • Passionate love almost nonexistent
  • Few restrictions for early Romans
ancient asia
Ancient Asia
  • China
  • India
  • Tao – the basic unity and interdependence of the universe; comprised of two principles
    • Yin: feminine, passive, inexhaustible
    • Yang: masculine, assertive, limited
  • Man should feed yang with prolonged contact with yin, without ejaculation
  • Best if multiple women, female orgasm
  • Sexual instruction and manuals common
  • Utilized drugs and sexual devices
  • Karma – cycle of birth and rebirth
  • Goal – live a just life, marry, procreate
  • Marriage – religious and economic obligation
  • Kamasutra – 3rd-4th century B.C.
    • Nature of love
    • Good family practices
    • Moral guidance in love and sex
    • Sexual techniques
  • Early Christianity
  • Middle Ages
  • Islam
  • The Renaissance
  • The Reformation
early christianity
Early Christianity
  • Jesus – liberal in thinking about sexuality, and its punishment for transgressions
  • Later followers established the dominant western view of condemnation
  • Highest love is that for God
  • Celibacy and chastity were idealized
  • Association of sexuality with sin
  • Sex for procreation only
the middle ages
The Middle Ages
  • 1050-1150 sexuality was liberalized
  • 1215 – church began confession and penance
  • Women changed from a temptress (Eve) to a model of virtue (Mary)
  • Late 15th century – campaign against witchcraft, women’s insatiable “carnal lust”
  • Thomas Aquinas (1200s) argued sex organs were for procreation; condemned homosexuality
  • Patriarchal society
  • Modesty, cover private parts of the body
  • Koran likens wives to fields that men should cultivate as frequently as they want
  • All forms of sexuality are permissible
  • Harems for wealthy men
  • Eunuchs guarded the women from finding sexual pleasure elsewhere
  • Celebrated young boys as the epitome of beauty
male x female the war of the sexes

Biological investment

Natural attachment of the offspring


Physical power – protection

Agricultural society – first born


Male x Female the war of the sexes
the renaissance
The Renaissance
  • Thought shifted from God to human beings
  • Women became more educated and politically involved
  • 17th century witchcraft trials based on men’s fears of women’s sexuality
the reformation
The Reformation
  • Protestantism – early 16th century
  • Bible showed obligation to reproduce and have marital love, instead of valuing celibacy
  • Women were men’s partners in all things, not just to have children
  • Allowed divorce
  • Companionship was focal in marriage
  • Women were weaker than men
  • Sex permissible only in marital union
the enlightenment
The Enlightenment
  • 18th century
  • Prized rational thought over traditional authority
  • Human nature best understood through study
  • Sexual reproduction was shown to be a great evolutionary achievement
  • “Free love” and rise in premarital pregnancy and illegitimate births
  • Homosexuality: condemnation and persecution, then tolerance
the victorian era
The Victorian Era
  • Public behavior important, especially to the upper class
  • Conservative sexual attitudes, not always practiced
  • Male chivalry
  • Women virtuous, delicate, vulnerable
  • Sexual indulgence was believed to cause many illnesses
  • Courtly love and prostitution
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many doctors taught that masturbation was harmful, and so devices, such as the two barbed rings and the shock box shown here, were created to keep children-especially boys-from achieving unwanted erections.
sex in american history
Sex in American History
  • The Colonies
  • United States – New World
  • 19th century
  • 20th century
the colonies
The Colonies
  • Puritans had severe sanctions for sexual transgressions
  • Sexuality was natural within marriage
  • Bundling for young, courting couples
united states new world
United States – New World
  • Church’s power diminished
  • Right to personal happiness, sexual liberation
  • Brothels, contraception, abortive medicines
  • Sexuality embraced within marriage, and without
  • Female indentured servants and slaves were commonly raped
  • Myth of slave promiscuity
  • Sexuality of minorities was used to oppress them
the 19 th century
The 19th Century
  • 1820s free love movement
  • 1852 – Mormons announce practicing polygamy
  • End of 19th century – Medical model of sexuality
    • Women ruled by their wombs; ovarectomies
    • John Kellogg’s sanitarium
    • Homosexuality an illness, not a sin
  • Comstock Act of 1873 – prohibited mailing obscene writing or ads, including contraceptive information and artwork containing nudity
the 20 th century
The 20th Century
  • Social hygiene movement
  • Sexology
  • Feminism
  • Gay Liberation
the social hygiene movement
The Social Hygiene Movement
  • Virtuous women were catching STIs from husbands sleeping with prostitutes
    • Began requiring blood tests before marriage
    • Prostitution arrests by law enforcement
  • Early advocates of sex education in schools for boys and girls
  • Scientific pursuit to understand human sexuality
  • Kinsey – American sexual behavior
  • Masters and Johnson – sexual response physiology
  • Sanger – “It is none of society’s business what a woman shall do with her body”
    • Published birth control literature, violating the Comstock act
    • Public outrage caused the case to be dropped
    • Opened birth control clinic that became the Planned Parenthood organization
gay liberation
Gay Liberation
  • Homosexuals viewed as perverts preying on youth
  • Many medical “cures” attempted
  • 1969 – Police raided Stonewall, a gay bar, and the gay community resisted for the first time
  • APA removed homosexuality from the DSM
  • 1970s gay liberation
  • 1980s AIDS epidemic
  • Gay marriage controversy
sex politics
Sex politics
  • Sex used as a platform for votes.\
  • Family values
  • Culture wars