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Unit 1: Health Sexuality

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  1. Unit 1: Health Sexuality

  2. Healthy Growth and Sexuality • Sexuality • What is it? • Stages of human sexual development • Sexually decision making • Male and Female reproductive systems • Birth Control • Sexually Transmitted Infections • Assignment

  3. Ground Rules • This class will be very open and non threatening • Everybody should feel free to ask any question at anytime • Respectful of others • “Question Box”

  4. Class Discussion • In groups of 4-5 brainstorm all the words that come to mind when thinking about Intimacy, Love and affection Sexual decision making Sexuality Sexual Contact Sexual attraction Gender roles and relations between sexes Physical development of sexual characteristics

  5. Sexuality

  6. Sexuality

  7. Sexuality • SEXUALITYis an integral part of our entire being from the time of birth. It includes our physical, physiological, psychological, social, emotional, cultural, spiritual and ethical dimensions of sex and gender.

  8. Stages of Human Sexual Development • Stage 1 – Infancy (Birth to 2 years) • Stage 2 – Childhood/Preadolescence (3-12 years) • Stage 3 – Adolescence (13-18 years) • Stage 4 – Adulthood (19-45 years) • Stage 5 – Later adulthood (45 +)

  9. Stages of Human Sexual Development

  10. Healthy Relationships • Safety • Honesty • Acceptance • Respect • Enjoyment

  11. In Healthy Relationships • Feel happy/relax • Are confident • Positive self esteem • Act with mutual respect • Feel appreciated • Communicate openly • Listen to each other • Demonstrate trust • Ability to talk about sexuality • Make sexual decisions together • Demonstrate independence • Spend time together and apart

  12. In Unhealthy Relationships • Feel unhappy • Pressure the other person • Use intimidation or threats • Disagree frequently • Have negative self esteem • Feel disrespected and unappreciated • Do not communicate well • Dishonest • Hurt or harm each other • Do not talk about sexuality • Do not make sexual decisions together

  13. Factors Affecting Sexual Decisions • What influences teens to be sexually active? • What influences teens to practice Abstinence?

  14. Sexually Active • Increased sex hormones after the onset of puberty, especially testosterone, activate sexual arousal • in adolescent. • Curiosity about experiencing sex. • Consider sexual intercourse as a sign of being “grown-up.” • A way of showing “loyalty” in a relationship. • A way of punishing or rebelling against parents. • A need for intimacy and closeness. • Peer pressure from close friends. • Pressure from boyfriend or girlfriend. • Sexual images and messages in the media (advertising, TV, music, magazines, pornography, etc.) • History of sexual abuse. • Socio-economic status – some young people, especially young women engage in sexual activities • with older partners for economic or survival reasons.

  15. Practice Abstinence • Family influences. • Personal values. • Moral, cultural or religious values. • Fear of being caught. • Fear of pregnancy or getting a sexually transmitted disease. • Feeling not being ready to have sex. • Too embarrassed to have sex. • Have high educational or career goals. • Have knowledge about sexuality. • Have well developed decision-making skills. • Consistent parenting, regardless of the number of parents in the family, can influence teens in • delaying sexual intercourse. • Education regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s) and teen pregnancy. • Positive self-esteem. • Self-discipline. • Self-responsibility. • Peer influence.

  16. Anatomy and Reproduction • Anatomy • Female reproductive system • Male reproductive system • Problems with the male reproductive systems • Female Ovarian cycle • Reproduction

  17. Male Reproductive System

  18. Male Reproductive System Ureter Rectum Bladder Seminal Vesicle Prostate Gland Vas Deferens Cowper’s Gland Penis Epididymis Urethra Testicle Scrotum

  19. Male Reproductive System Vas Deferens

  20. Male Reproductive System Name Description Function Scrotum - sac outside the body - lies behind the penis -holds the testes -regulates testicle temperature to insure proper sperm production Testes (Testicles) -small oval shaped organ located inside the scrotum -produces male hormones (testosterone) and sperm Sperm -resembles a tadpole in shape -propelled by tails -average lifespan – 72 hrs -male reproductive cell -Fertilizes ovum to form baby -1/4 billion sperm, only one fertilizes, rest die Vas Deferens -muscular tube which connects the testes to the prostate gland -moves the sperm from the epididymus (testes) to ejaculatory duct Prostate Gland -surrounds the urethra at the neck of the bladder and contains the ejaculatory duct -produces fluid which makes up seminal fluid -aids in ejaculation -close off bladder so sperm and urine do not mix Semen -whitish fluid that carries the sperm during ejaculation -Medium for sperm to move -lubricant in sexual intercourse Urethra Muscular tube extending form the bladder through the prostate gland and penis -carries both urine and sperm Penis -organ above testes -large and erect when sexually stimulated -made of erectile tissues and blood -contains the urethra for passage of urine and sperm -organ used to enter and to deposit sperm in the vagina Seminal Vesicle - pair of hollow like glands lying next to the bladder, joining the vas deferens and prostate gland -production of a substance important to the survival of the sperm

  21. Sperm

  22. Injuries/Caring • Hernia • Common, portion of the intestines pushes through the groin area • Testicular Injury • Direct contact to the testicles • Testicles can also twist cause lack of blood supply to testicles • Steroid Use • Testicles can atrophy and shrink • STI’s • Talk about this later • Testicular Cancer • Prostate Cancer

  23. Testicular Cancer • One of the most common forms of cancer for men under the age of 40 • Cells in the testicles divide abnormally to form a tumor • If detected early, can be cured • Testicular self examination

  24. Testicular Cancer

  25. Prostate Cancer • 20,000 Canadian men are diagnosed each year • 1 in 7 men will develop prostate cancer • Prostate exam critical in men over 40 • Symptoms • Painful urination • Blood in urine • Pain in lower back, pelvic area • Painful ejaculation

  26. Female Reproductive System Fallopian Tube Ovary Uterus Cervix Vagina

  27. Female Reproductive System Endometrium(Lining of Uterus)

  28. Female Reproductive System

  29. Name Description Function Ovum -mature egg ready for fertilization -oval shaped, size of a pinhead -female sex cell -grows into fetus when fertilized by sperm Ovaries -a pair of oval shaped organs located at the end of the fallopian tubes, but not attached -production and storage of ova -production of ovarian hormones (estrogen and progesterone) Fallopian Tubes -thin tubes -walls are muscular and line with fine hairs -conducts the ovum form the ovary to the uterus -place where fertilization occurs Uterus -connected to the vagina -hollow muscular organ -shaped like an upside down pear -located near bladder and large intestine -endometrium grows in preparation for implantation of zygote, and growth of baby -no fertilization, lining is shed – menstruation Vagina -3 to 4 inch muscular canal located between urinary opening and anus -For sexual intercourse -receives sperm -birth canal Cervix -neck of uterus -muscular -holds baby in the uterus -expansion and contraction during labor and menstruation cycle Female Reproductive System

  30. Ovarian Cycle

  31. Sperm and Ovum

  32. Sexuality

  33. Menstrual Cycle • Average length of “monthly” cycle = 28 days • Lunar month • 13 cycles per year • Each woman is different • Average is 28 (+ or -) 2

  34. Menses • Shedding of the Lining of the uterus • Precipitated by the declining levels of female hormones • Typically lasts between 1-7 days • Can vary between females • First period called Menarche • Average age at menarche now 10

  35. Ovulation • Release of ovum in the fallopian tube • May cause brief sharp pain • Occurs 14 days prior to next menses • Length of time after menses varies

  36. Female Fertility • From 3 days before ovulation • Until 5 days after ovulation


  38. Birth Control Methods • Hormonal methods: the pill, injections • Spermicides: film, foam, jellies, creams • Condoms: male and female • Barrier methods: cervical cap, diaphragm, sponge • IUD’s • Sterilization methods • Calendar and withdrawalmethods

  39. The Pill • Prevents ovulation • Tricks body into thinking it is pregnant • Stops egg from ripening • 97-99% effective when taken properly (most effective form of birth control) • Must be taken at same time every day

  40. The Pill: Pros Most effective form of birth control *** should be used with condoms for STI protection Fewer menstrual cramps, lighter periods Can be used as a treatment for acne

  41. The Pill: Cons Doesn't protect against STI's when used alone Possible side effects in some people: headache, weight gain, nausea, mood changes, breast pain, weight pain Increased risk of heart attack or stroke, especially in smokers Must be taken daily

  42. Depo Provera An injection of hormones every three months It releases hormones that block ovulation Effective rate of 99%

  43. Cons: Depo Provera Pros: Highly effective Safe and convenient No protection against STIs Has side effects like weight gain Can cause mentstrual irregularities such as spotting or no periods If planning pregnancy, can delay conception for 6-8 months

  44. Spermicides Chemicals that kills sperm on contact. Can be foam, film, jellies, creams, tablets or suppositories They are inserted in the vagina just prior to sex

  45. Cons: Spermicides Pros: 99% effective when used with a condom Easily available Need repeat application Need planning ahead Can cause genital irritation Are messy No STI protection Are not as effective as other forms of birth control

  46. Male Condom • Latex sheath that covers the penis • Prevents sperm from entering vagina • Must be put on the penis as soon as it is erect • 88% effectiveness. If used with spermicide, this goes up to 99% • Can only used a condom once • Leave space at the end • (pinch the tip!!!)

  47. Female Condom Made of plastic, they are loose fitting pouches that line the vagina. Held in place with a soft ring at each end They prevent sperm from entering the vagina If used alone, 70% effective. If used with spermacide, they have an 85-95% effectiveness

  48. Cons: Condoms Pros: Easily available Effective at protecting against STI, highly effective form of birth control if used with spermicide Relatively inexpensive Can break Interrupts sex Cause decrease sensation Female condom can cause irritation