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Mid-Atlantic Region Japan-in-the-Schools (MARJiS) Program. U.S. Educational Instructional Technology: Past, Present and Future. University of Maryland Educational Technology Outreach Director: Davina Pruitt-Mentle. U.S. Educational Instructional Technology: Past, Present and Future.

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U.S. Educational Instructional Technology: Past, Present and Future


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    1. Mid-Atlantic Region Japan-in-the-Schools (MARJiS) Program U.S. Educational Instructional Technology: Past, Present and Future University of Maryland Educational Technology OutreachDirector: Davina Pruitt-Mentle MARJiS Program

    2. U.S. Educational Instructional Technology: Past, Present and Future • Statistics • Trends in Educational Technology • Teacher Training Trends • Standards • Current Issues in Educational Technology • New Challenges • Current K-12 Trends • Activities for you to explore MARJiS Program

    3. Educational Technology Drivers • Equal Access • Technology • At home • At school • Training • Usage MARJiS Program

    4. Digital Divide • Differences in access between “haves” and “have-nots” • Gap still exists but is narrowing • Studies focus on socio-economic condition, race, gender, and education • Access highest for • Upper income brackets • White • Male • College degree MARJiS Program

    5. Internet Usage Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project surveys, Nov-Dec 2000. Margin of error is ±3%. MARJiS Program

    6. Maryland Trends Source: Maryland Business Roundtable MARJiS Program

    7. Teacher Training Leads to Effectiveness • Report to the President on the Use of Technology to Strengthen Education (2000) • Only 62% of teachers with one or more computers systems in the classroom use the computer for instruction • “Teachers commonly report that they have not received adequate preparation in the effective use of computers within the classroom.” • “The more ambitious and promising applications of computers call for considerably more skill from the teacher, who must … effectively integrate technology into the curriculum and devise ways of assessing student work based on individual and group projects.” • Technology effectiveness requires teacher training MARJiS Program

    8. Characteristics of Teachers Who Successfully Integrate Technology • Experienced (median age = 44) • Technology savvy (upper quintile of skills) • Instructional leaders, not fringe innovators • Access to multiple networked computers in classroom • Have online computer at home (74%) • Spend over $100 of personal funds on project (63%) Source: 3Com (2000) Preparing Teachers to Use IT in the Classroom MARJiS Program

    9. What do teachers need to be ready for technology? • Develop a philosophy • Purchase products • Identify and solve problems • Speak the language • See where technology fits in educational integration Do computers make a difference? Do pencils make a difference? MARJiS Program

    10. Technology in Education • Since 1920- emphasis on radio and television • Current – Internet • 20 years from now • Intelligent Computer Assisted Instruction (ICAI) • Monitor student performance • Create personal profile for each student • Automatically tailor instruction to particular needs • Update profile as progress is made • Virtual Reality (VR) • Simulation MARJiS Program

    11. Educational Technology Definition by Roblyer & Edwards: Educational technology is a combination of the processes and tools involved in addressing educational needs and problems, with an emphasis on applying the most current tools: computers and their related technologies. Roblyer, M.D., and Edwards, J. (2000). Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. (2nd Edition) Merrill Publishing MARJiS Program

    12. Four Perspectives That Shaped Educational Technology MARJiS Program

    13. Various Approaches to Technology in Education MARJiS Program

    14. Integrating Educational Technology Process of determining which electronic tools and which methods for implementing them are appropriate for given classroom situations and problems MARJiS Program

    15. The Era Before Microcomputers 1950 - First instructional computer use: computerized flight simulator used to train pilots at MIT 1959 - First computer use in schools: IBM 650 1966 - IBM offers the 1500 system: Dedicated instructional mainframe 1967 - CCC offers first minicomputer-based instructional system (DEC PDP/1); Mitre Corporation offers TICCIT system 1970s - CDC offers the Plato instructional delivery system The Microcomputer Era and Beyond 1977 - First microcomputers enter schools 1980 - Seymore Papert writes Mindstorms: The Logo movement begins 1980s MECC offers microcomputer software; educational materials publishers begin courseware development and marketing The courseware evaluation is emphasized: MicroSIFT, EPIE, others The computer literacy movement begins, then wanes after 1988 1990s - Use of ILS and other networked systems increases; multimedia use and development increases Milestones and Trends in Educational Computing Technology • The Internet Era • 1994 - Widespread use of the Internet begins • 2000 - Virtual reality systems and other virtual environments are emphasized MARJiS Program

    16. No technology is a panacea for education Computer literacy/technological literacy is a moving target Computer literacy/technological literacy offers a limited integration rationale Standalone computers and networked computers have benefits and limitations Teachers usually do not develop technology materials or curriculum Technically “possible” does not equal desirable, feasible, or inevitable Things change faster than teachers can keep up Older technologies can be useful Teachers always will be important What have we learned from the past? MARJiS Program

    17. Elements of a Rationale for Using Technology in Education • Motivation • Unique instructional capabilities • Support for new instructional approaches • Increased teacher productivity • Required skills for an information age MARJiS Program

    18. Motivation Gaining learner attention Engaging the learner through production work Increasing perceptions of control (intrinsic motivation) Unique instructional capabilities Linking learners to information sources Helping learners visualize problems and solutions Tracking learner progress Linking learners to learning tools Support for new instructional approaches Cooperative learning Shared Intelligence Problem solving and higher-level skills Increased teacher productivity Freeing time to work with students by helping with production and record keeping tasks Providing more accurate information more quickly Allowing teachers to produce better-looking more “student-friendly” materials more quickly Required skills for an information age Technology literacy Information literacy Visual literacy Elements of a Rationale for Using Technology in Education MARJiS Program

    19. New Initiative: Educational Technology Standards • ISTE (International Society for Technology in Education) and NCATE (National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education) have developed pre-service standards • National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) for K-12 • Technology Standards for School Administrators(TSSA) for Principals MARJiS Program

    20. NCATE & ISTE • Establish standards for teaching in education • Increase emphasis in use of technology in teacher training MARJiS Program

    21. Operate a computer system to use software successfully Evaluate and use computers and other technologies to support instruction Explore, evaluate, and use technology-based applications for communications, presentations, and decision making Apply current instructional principles and research and appropriate assessment practices to the use of computers and related technologies Demonstrate knowledge of uses of computers for problem solving, data collection, information management, communications, presentations, and decision making Develop student learning activities that integrate computers and technology for a variety of student grouping strategies and for diverse student populations Evaluate, select, and integrate computer/technology-based instruction in the curriculum in a subject area and/or grade level Demonstrate knowledge of uses of multimedia, hypermedia, and telecommunications tools to support instruction Demonstrate skills in using productivity tools for professional and personal use, including word processing, database management, spreadsheet software, and print/graphic utilities Demonstrate knowledge of equity, ethical, legal, and human issues of computing and technology use as they relate to society, and model appropriate behavior Identify resources to keep current in applications of computing and related technologies in education use technology to access information to enhance personal and professional productivity Apply computers and related technologies to facilitate emerging roles of learners and educators NCATE/ISTE Required Technology Competencies for Educational Technology Leaders MARJiS Program

    22. Standards Online • ISTE Draft: http://cnets.iste.org/review/ectlitreview2.html • NCATE Standards: http://www.ncate.org/standard/m_stds.htm • Joint ISTE/NCATE: http://www.iste.org/standards/ncate/ • TSSA: http://cnets.iste.org/tssa/ • NETS for Students: http://cnets.iste.org/index2.html MARJiS Program

    23. Today’s Big Issues in Education and Technology • Societal issues • pro-technology movement • anti-technology movement • Cultural and equity issues • economic/ethnic bias • multi-cultural issues • gender bias • special needs students • Educational issues • directed vs. constructivist debate • interdisciplinary vs. single-subject instruction • technical issues MARJiS Program

    24. New Challenges • Technology skills and standards • New teacher and administrator requirements and assessments • Integrate of technology within curriculum (state & national standards) • Established student competencies • Staying abreast of local and societal attitudes • Using strategies to ensure equity • Digital divide • Assistive technology • Matching integration strategies with needs MARJiS Program

    25. Current Trends in the K-12 Classroom • PD activity ends with a teacher developed lesson plan • Lesson Plan “databases” for others to use • Make use of other “on-line” activities • Implementing educational software into daily activities • PowerPoint, Excel, Kid Pix, Inspiration, Kidspiration, StoryWeaver, etc. • Selected Internet activities • WebQuests, Scavenger Hunts, Treasure Hunts, etc. • Problem-Solving Courseware • Educational “Games”, Simulations, Case Studies • E-Learning • New Equipment Developments • Graphic Calculators and Probes • Handheld Devices & E-Books • Wireless & Wearable Computers • Group Activities • Assessment through Electronic Portfolios MARJiS Program

    26. Lesson Plan Databases • Kathy Schrock http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/ • AskEric Lesson Plans http://www.askeric.org/Virtual/Lessons/ • The Lesson Plans Page http://www.lessonplanspage.com/ • EdHelper http://www.edhelper.com/ • TeachersNet http://teachers.net/lessons/ MARJiS Program

    27. Try ... • Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching: http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/roblyer/ • Go to Try This! Tutorial • Select Step 1 MARJiS Program

    28. Inspiration MARJiS Program

    29. Kidspiration MARJiS Program

    30. Kid Pix MARJiS Program

    31. Selected Internet Activities • WebQuests (http://edweb.sdsu.edu/webquest/webquest.html) • Scavenger Hunts (http://lserver.aea14.k12.ia.us/Scavenger.html) • Treasure Hunts (http://www.cybersurfari.org/) MARJiS Program

    32. Games & Simulations MARJiS Program

    33. Electronic Portfolios MARJiS Program