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The World of Music 7 th edition. Part 4 Listening to Western Classical Music Chapter 13: Music of the Twentieth Century. Modern Classical Music. Diverse, Complex, Experimentation Conventional Instruments Traditional Techniques AND Unconventional Techniques Thumbtacks on Piano hammers

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The world of music 7 th edition
The World of Music7th edition

Part 4

Listening to Western Classical Music

Chapter 13: Music of the Twentieth Century


Modern classical music
Modern Classical Music

  • Diverse, Complex, Experimentation

    • Conventional Instruments

      • Traditional Techniques AND

      • Unconventional Techniques

        • Thumbtacks on Piano hammers

        • Buzzing mouthpieces

        • Humming, singing whistling through the instrument

    • Unconventional Instruments

      • Anvil/Automobile Brake Drums

      • Garden Hoses with mouthpieces attached

      • Fire engine sirens

      • Tape players (predecessor to the CD/DAT)

  • Often Complex

    • Blurred tonality or lack of tonality

      • Increased Chromaticism over the Romantic period

      • Tone Clusters

      • Polytonality

      • Different scales

        • Whole tone

        • Pentatonic

    • Longer Melodies that are more angular or disjunct (skips around)

      • Typically not singable because of this disjunct-ness

    • Difficult, Puzzling Forms and forms that are hard to understand/find

      • Can be free of bar lines & phrases and measured in time (seconds)

      • Silence is extremely important


Modern classical music continued
Modern Classical Music continued

  • Timbre and Rhythm over Melody and Harmony

  • Avant-Garde : Cutting edge, the newest of the new…

  • New musical language or notation

    • This notation expressed the musical result in a picture more than a rhythm and pitch indication.

    • Traditional notation is still used

  • Multicultural influences (native folk musics)

  • New music and musicians are influenced by:

    • World events (WW1 and WW2!)

    • World Economy (great depression - US)

    • Shifts in patronage

    • Political problems or situations


Impressionism in art and music
Impressionism in Art and Music

  • Style from French Painting Philosophy called Impressionism

    • Dibs and dabs of colors when viewed up close do not convey the true impression desired by the artist. But when viewed in totality, makes a vivid portrait by the artist

    • Monet

    • Renoir

  • Reaction against Intellectual German Music

    • Brahms

    • Wagner

    • Mahler

  • Favored Delicate Instruments

    • Flute

    • Harp

    • Strings

    • Light or no brass and percussion scoring in the music

  • Claude Debussy


Claude debussy 1862 1918
Claude Debussy (1862 – 1918)

  • French

  • Rejected Traditional Practices

    • Great example of the transition from Romantic ideas to the 20th ce

  • Influences

    • Painters

    • Poets

    • Gamelan Music (of Indonesia)

  • Excelled at Works for Piano and Orchestra

  • Piano Preludes

  • Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun (The mythological character, not Bambi) Orch.

  • La Mer (The Sea) Orch.

  • Syrinx (For solo Flute – no accompanying Piano)


Experimental music
Experimental Music

  • Avant-Garde Composers in Every Generation

    • Experimental Works

    • Varying Degrees of Success

  • Two Types of Composer

    • One Who Uses Proven Techniques

    • One Who Wants to Develop Original Techniques

  • Igor Stravinsky


Igor stravinsky 1882 1971

Russian, emigrated to USA in 1939, became citizen (Naturalized) in 1946

Style Contributions

Rhythmic complexity, irregular rhythms, and shifting beat emphasis

Innovative Orchestration

Extreme ranges of the instruments

Unusual combinations of instruments

Original Uses of Tonality

Reinvention of Old Material with new uses

Baroque and Classical Forms

Jazz

Russian Folk Melodies

Ragtime

Representative Works

Ballets (The Suites from these works are popular Orchestral Music)

The Firebird

Petrushka

The Rite of Spring

First performance caused a riot in the audience

Opera, The Rake’s Progress

Chamber Work, The Soldier’s Tale

Opera-Oratorio

Oedipus Rex

Symphony of Psalms

Igor Stravinsky (1882 – 1971)


Atonal music and serialism
Atonal Music and Serialism (Naturalized) in 1946

  • Atonality

    • Literally Means, “No Tonality”

    • Alternative to Major and Minor Keys

  • Serialism or 12 tone

    • Uses the 12 Tones in a Fixed Row or “tone row”

      • No Traditional Scales

      • No Traditional Chords

    • Row May be Altered

      • Reversed

      • Upside Down

      • Transposed

      • Combinations of the Above (i.e. Reversed and Transposed)

      • Changes in Instrumentation, Rhythm, Dynamics, etc. but not order

      • Too cerebral? No emotion?

  • Arnold Schoenberg


Arnold schoenberg 1874 1951

Austrian Jew, left due to WW2 and Hitler (duh) (Naturalized) in 1946

Emigrated to America, worked at USC and UCLA, among other places

Early works Post-Romantic

Late works Atonal and Serial

Style

Disjunct Melodies

Small Ensembles

Irregular Phrases

Complex and Fragmentary Sound

Controversial

Representative Works

Verklärte Nacht

Five Pieces for Orchestra

Pierrot Lunaire

Use of Sprechstimme

A new combination of singing and speech recitation

Variations for Orchestra

Opera, Moses and Aaron

Arnold Schoenberg (1874 – 1951)


Electronic music
Electronic Music (Naturalized) in 1946

  • Began in 1950’s

    • Invention of Magnetic Tape Recording

    • Musique Concrète

      • Altered Speed of Tape

      • Reversed Tape

      • Splicing of Tape

  • Synthesizers

  • Computer-Generated Music

    • MIDI

  • Was this the elimination of the Musician?

  • Edgard Varèse


Edgard var se 1883 1965

French (Came to America in WW1) (Naturalized) in 1946

Promoted Experimental Music

Conducted

Wrote Articles

Participated in Classes and Seminars

Lifelong Interest in Science and Technology

Any sound could be music

Used a Theremin in Ecuatorial

Representative Pieces

Hyperprism

Octandre

Intégrales

Ionization

Déserts

Poème Électronique

Ecuatorial

Edgard Varèse (1883 – 1965)


Chance music
Chance Music (Naturalized) in 1946

  • Also called Indeterminate music

  • Performer is allowed to create

    • Randomness

    • Chance Elements (Dice, etc.)

    • Improvisation

  • Large-scale structure/form provided by Composer in the score

  • Pieces never performed the same way twice

  • John Cage


John cage 1912 1992
John Cage (1912 – 1992) (Naturalized) in 1946

  • Known for Original Ideas

    • Prepared Piano

      • Items (Screws, Paper, Erasers, etc) Placed on Strings Inside a Piano

      • Can Sound like a full Percussion Ensemble

    • Chance Music

      • Less Control for the Composer

      • Accept What you Get

        • Multiple Radios Simultaneously Playing on Stage

        • 4’ 33” of “Silence” from Performer (Audience, Theater, and Surroundings Create the Music.)


Bela bart k 1881 1945

Hungarian (Naturalized) in 1946

Nationalism style (from Humgary)

Ethnomusicologist

Preserved Folk Songs of Hungary

Field Recordings on early cylinder recorders

Used These Melodies in his Compositions

Extended Interest to Other Parts of Europe/Africa

Left Hungary in 1940 due to WW2 and his Anti-Nazi views

Like most artists, became famous/popular after his death from Leukemia in 1945

Wrote Concerto for Orchestra while hospitalized

Representative Works

Mikrokosmos Piano text series

Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta

Concerto for Orchestra

6 String Quartets

3 Piano Concertos

Bela Bartók (1881 – 1945)


American americanist music
American/Americanist Music (Naturalized) in 1946

  • Reflects a sense of wide, open spaces

  • Incorporates vernacular musical concepts

    • Syncopation from Jazz

    • Folk styles included

    • Patriotic themes


Charles ives 1874 1954

Great Innovator (Naturalized) in 1946

Highly Successful Businessman

Great Freedom to Compose

Substantial Resources

Style

Quotations from American Life

Complex (for Performers and Audiences)

Charles Ives (1874 – 1954)

  • Representative Pieces

    • 4 Symphonies

    • 200 Songs

    • Tone Poems

      • Three Places in New England

      • The Unanswered Question

    • 2 Piano Sonatas


Aaron copland 1900 1990

Merged Classical and Vernacular Styles (Naturalized) in 1946

Innovation,

But not at the expense of the past

Organized New Music Concerts

Sources

Cowboy Songs

Mexican Songs

Church Music

Jazz/Blues

Aaron Copland (1900 – 1990)

  • Representative Works

    • Ballets

      • Billy the Kid

        • Winn Dixie’s Beef people commercial

      • Rodeo

      • Appalachian Spring

    • Patriotic Music

      • Fanfare for the Common Man

        • Olympic Theme 1972

      • Lincoln Portrait

        • For Narrator and Ensemble

    • Movie Music

      • Red Pony

      • Our Town


American women composers
American Women Composers (Naturalized) in 1946

  • Amy Cheney Beach (1867-1954)

    • First American woman to have a Symphony published

  • Ruth Crawford (1901-1953)

    • First woman to be awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship

  • Ellen Taaffe Zwilich (1939-)


African american composers
African-American Composers (Naturalized) in 1946

  • Ullysses Kay (1917-1995)

    • Earned a Fulbright Scholarship, Guggenheim Fellowship, and a Prix de Rome

  • William Grant Still (1895-1978)

    • One of the best-known African-American composers

    • Earned a Guggenheim Fellowship


Other american composers
Other American Composers (Naturalized) in 1946

  • George Gershwin (1898-1937)

    • Tin Pan Alley composer

    • Known for writing Classical music with Jazz incorporated within

  • Henry Cowell (1897-1965)

    • Known for using the Tone Cluster as a compositional device

      • Tone Cluster – several adjacent pitches played simultaneously


Neo classical music
Neo-Classical Music (Naturalized) in 1946

  • Return to Structures/Aesthetics of the Past

    • Forms of Previous Periods

    • Using Modern Language

  • Possible Traits

    • Control

    • Order

    • Emotional Restraint

    • Minimal Instrumentation

    • Transparent Texture

  • Stravinsky


Minimalism

Seeks Great Effect from Minimal Material (Naturalized) in 1946

Began in 1960’s

Philip Glass

Terry Riley

Reaction Against Serialism (12 tone)

Traits

Extensive Repetition

Slow, Subtle Changes

Rhythm

Chords

Other Elements

Tonal Style

Other Similar Styles

Jazz

Rock

Indian Music

African Music

Minimalism


Neo romanticism
Neo-Romanticism (Naturalized) in 1946

  • A return to 19th century Musical ideas

    • Program music

    • Absolute music

    • Singable melodies

    • Etc. but with the newer 20th century practices and sounds

  • Desired to write what audiences want to hear, instead of what the artist/composer wants to hear

    • Not wanting to alienate audiences

    • Audiences would then pay to come and hear the concerts

  • Most of the time, the composer would not become famous until after their death, sometimes decades

  • Igor Stravinsky

  • Darius Milhaud (France)


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