exercise and respiration and the circulatory system n.
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Exercise and respiration and the circulatory system. B2 - Training and the Pulmonary system. B.2.1 Define total lung capacity , vital capacity , tidal volume and ventilation rate . Total lung capacity. : volume of air in the lungs after a maximum inhalation.

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b 2 1 define total lung capacity vital capacity tidal volume and ventilation rate
B.2.1 Define total lung capacity, vital capacity, tidal volume and ventilation rate.

Total lung capacity

: volume of air in the lungs after a maximum inhalation.

: maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalation.

: volume of air taken in or out with each inhalation or exhalation.

: number of inhalations or exhalations per minute (this term is used, not breathing rate).

Vital capacity

Tidal volume

Ventilation rate

slide4

B.2.2 Explain the need for increases in tidal volume and ventilation rate during exercise.

http://www.livestrong.com/article/288393-increase-in-tidal-volume-during-exercise/

Read the article then complete the sentences:

When you exercise you need to breath deeper because…..

When you exercise you need to breath more often because…..

The ventilation and depth are controlled by negative feedback.

What is the stimulus?

Where is the stimulus detected?

Draw a feedback loop to describe this.

slide5

B.2.3 Outline the effects of training on the pulmonary system, including changes in ventilation rate at rest, maximum ventilation rate and vital capacity.

http://www.normalbreathing.com/c-effects-of-exercise-on-the-respiratory-system.phpRead the article and try to make a summary table in words rather than numbers…….:

b 3 1 define heart rate stroke volume cardiac output and venous return
B.3.1 Define heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output and venous return.

Learn these definitions

: volume of blood pumped out with each contraction of the heart.

: volume of blood pumped out by the heart per minute.

: volume of blood returning to the heart via the veins per minute.

Stroke volume

Cardiac output

Venous return

b 3 2 explain the changes in cardiac output and venous return during exercise
B.3.2 Explain the changes in cardiac output and venous return during exercise.

Why does the heart rate need to speed up when you exercise?

How is this speed up controlled?

What effect will speeding up the heart have on how much blood is pumped out per minute?

What effect will pumping more blood out of the heart per minute have on the amount of blood returning (venous return)?

b 3 3 compare the distribution of blood flow at rest and during exercise
B.3.3 Compare the distribution of blood flow at rest and during exercise.
  • Blood flow to the brain is unchanged during exercise. Blood flow to the heart wall, skeletal muscles and skin is increased, but blood flow to the kidneys, stomach, intestines and other abdominal organs is reduced.
  • Find an/some image(s) to express this. Then explain “why?” for each change or lack of change?.......
slide9
B.3.4 Explain the effects of training on heart rate and stroke volume, both at rest and during exercise.
  • Start here -----> http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/pe/exercise/2_exercise_effectsoftraining_rev1.shtml now explain “why?”
slide10
B.3.5 Evaluate the risks and benefits of using EPO (erythropoietin) and blood transfusions to improve performance in sports
b4 exercise and respiration
B4 – Exercise and respiration

B.4.1 Define VO2 and VO2 max.

VO2max is the maximum capacity of an individual's body to transport and use oxygen during exercise, which reflects the physical fitness of the individual.

The name is derived from V - volume, O2 - oxygen, max - maximum.

This instrument measures the amount of oxygen in the air breathed in and compares it with the amount in the air breathed out as the test subject carries out increasing levels of exercise.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ergospirometry_laboratory.jpg

b 4 2 outline the roles of glycogen and myoglobin in muscle fibres
B.4.2 Outline the roles of glycogen and myoglobin in muscle fibres.

Glycogen is an glucose storage molecule in muscles.

Myoglobin is an oxygen storage molecule in muscles(Like heamoglobin but it remains in the muscle.)

http://wikis.lib.ncsu.edu/images/1/19/Hemoglobin.jpg