Circulatory System and The Heart - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Circulatory System and The Heart

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  1. Circulatory System and The Heart

  2. Heart Anatomy • 4 chambers of the heart • Right and Left Atrium (enters heart) • Right and Left Ventricles (leaves the heart) • 2 atria contract simultaneously and shortly after 2 ventricles contract

  3. REAL THING!!! Minus the Pericardium

  4. Posterior Surface View

  5. Frontal section (interior chambers)

  6. Heart ValvesKnow this and not what is in your text! Atrioventricular valves • Tricuspid valve (Right A.V. valve) • Bicuspid valve (Left A.V. valve) • ALSO Mitral valve Semilumar valves • Aortic semilunar valve (aorta) • Pulmonary semilunar valve (pulmonary trunk)

  7. Heart Valves

  8. Superior/ Inferior Vena Cava Right Atrium Right Ventricle Pulmonary Artery Lungs Pulmonary Veins Left Atrium Left Ventricle Aorta Body Tissue

  9. Sinoatrial (S-A) Node (Pacemaker) • Specialized muscle tissue, located in the wall of the R. atrium, stimulates the muscle fibers to contract and relax rhythmically

  10. Atrioventricular (AV) Node • As atria contract, impulse reaches A-V node • Transmits electrical impulse over the walls of the ventricles to start ventricular contraction

  11. Cardiac Intrinsic Conduction System

  12. (ECG) Electrocardiogram • Records electrical activity • P = atrial depolarization • QRS = ventricular depolarization • T = ventricular repolarization • When does the atrial repolarization occur?

  13. ELECTROCARDIOGRAPH (ECG)

  14. Chemical Regulators • Noradrenaline – makes the S-A node fire more rapidly (during exercise or “fight or flight”) • Acetylcholine – slows the firing of the S-A node

  15. Cardiac output and Fitness • Cardiac output – amount of blood pumped by the heart • Affected by: • 1) Heart Rate • 2) Stroke volume – amount of blood forced out of heart with each heart beat. Cardiac output = stroke volume X heart rate

  16. Homework • Page 311 # 1, 3, 7 • Quiz tomorrow

  17. Anterior Aspect (front)

  18. Heart Anatomy cont’d • Which heart chamber has the thickest walls? • Left Ventricle • What is the significance of this structural difference? • Pumps blood to entire body (systematic circuit)