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The Circulatory System And Exercise. What Happens To The Heart During Exercise?. Task. Think of as many different responses your body has during exercise! 5 minutes and list them NEATLY! Write the heading Responses to Exercise. The Heart and Cardiovascular System.

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the circulatory system and exercise

The Circulatory System And Exercise

What Happens To The Heart During Exercise?

slide2
Task
  • Think of as many different responses your body has during exercise!
  • 5 minutes and list them NEATLY!
  • Write the heading Responses to Exercise
the heart and cardiovascular system
The Heart and Cardiovascular System
  • The Heart is a 4 chamber organ. Two Atria and Two Ventricles.
  • HEART RATE – The number of times your heart beats in a minute.
  • STROKE VOLUME – The amount of blood pumped by the heart in one beat.
  • CARDIAC OUTPUT – The amount of blood that leaves the left Ventricle in one minute.
  • To Calculate :

Cardiac Output = Stroke Vol x Heart Rate

blood vessels
Blood Vessels

There are 3 main types of blood vessels that carry blood around the body

  • Arteries (Oxygenated blood)
  • Capillaries
  • Veins (Deoxygenated blood)

Arteries are the largest blood vessel in the body, then Veins and the smallest are capillaries

the movement of blood around the body
The Movement of Blood Around the Body

To work effectively the Heart and Lungs need to work together smoothly

Blood with a poor oxygen supply is pumped to the lungs

Oxygen is transferred into the blood at the lungs and travels to the heart

Once the oxygen has been delivered to the body and waste products have been collected the blood returns to the heart

The heart pumps blood around the body delivering oxygen to the working muscles

remember
Remember!

Oxygen-Loaded blood goes into the Left side of the heart.

Oxygen-pooR blood goes into the Right side of the heart.

recap from last lesson
Recap From Last Lesson
  • What is-
  • Heart Rate
  • Stroke Volume
  • Cardiac Output
  • The Heart
  • What are the 3 main blood vessels. List them according to size (largest first)
  • Describe the movement of blood around the body
how can we measure heat rate take your pulse at
How can we measure Heat Rate?Take your Pulse at…..
  • The Carotid Artery (Where is this?)
  • The Radial Artery (Where is this?)

As the Heart beats the Artery walls expand, then contract and this is called a PULSE.

  • Why do we never feel for a pulse using a thumb?
  • What is your Resting Heart Rate now?
  • Average HR is around 72bpm (60-80bpm). Top athletes?
  • What factors may effect Heart Rate?
how blood is pumped around the body
How Blood is Pumped Around the Body
  • The arterioles branch into tiny tubes called capillaries. The thin walls allow food and oxygen to pass out to body cells, and carbon dioxide and other waste to pass in. (This happens in the muscle)
  • The artery walls are made of muscle and elastic tissue. They stretch when blood is pumped in, then contract, squirting it along.
  • From the venules it flows into a vein, which carries it back to the heart.
  • The heart pumps blood at high pressure into the arteries.
  • The artery branches into smaller tubes called arterioles.
  • Next the blood flows into larger tubes called venules. It has given up its oxygen. It is deoxygenated.
how blood is pumped around the body11
How Blood is Pumped Around the Body

4) The heart pumps blood at high pressure into the arteries.

2) The artery walls are made of muscle and elastic tissue. They stretch when blood is pumped in, then contract, squirting it along.

5) The artery branches into smaller tubes called arterioles.

1) The arterioles branch into tiny tubes called capillaries. The thin walls allow food and oxygen to pass out to body cells, and carbon dioxide and other waste to pass in. (This happens in the muscle)

6) Next the blood flows into larger tubes called venules. It has given up its oxygen. It is deoxygenated.

3) From the venules it flows into a vein, which carries it back to the heart.

what changes occur in the body during exercise
What Changes Occur In The Body During Exercise?
  • There is more Carbon Dioxide in the blood due to increased cellular respiration.
  • The lungs work harder to remove it and replace it with Oxygen.
  • The Brain tells the Heart to beat faster so HR increases.
  • Cardiac Output rises as more blood is pumped to the muscles.

These are all short term effects of exercise/activity

other changes you will experience
Other Changes you will experience….
  • Blood is shunted to where it is needed. (Vascular Shunt). Blood is diverted to the working muscle as a priority and is limited to other areas of the body like the stomach

.

  • Exercise generates Heat so the blood heats up. The body moves more blood near to the skin to cool it down. As a result your skin reddens.
  • You sweat which helps to cool you down by evaporation.
  • Again these are short term effects
the long term effects of exercise on the circulatory system
The Long Term Effects of Exercise on the Circulatory system
  • The Heart is a Cardiac Muscle, when we regularly exercise or train muscles they grow and become stronger. This means:
  • The amount of blood pumped from the heart in one beat will increase (Stroke volume)
  • The total amount of blood pumped in one minute will increase (Cardiac output)
  • Resting heart rate will lower as the heart will pump the blood as required in fewer beats.
  • The more blood that can be pumped the more oxygen it can carry to the muscles that require it.

Larger stronger Heart

Small Heart

Regular exercise

slide15

CARDIAC (HEART) RESPONSE

CIRCULATORY IMPROVEMENTS

LONG TERM EFFECTS OF TRAINING

RESPIRATORY RESPONSE

RECOVERY RESPONSE

EFFECT ON TENDONS, LIGAMENTS AND BONES

long term effects cont d
Long Term Effects cont’d
  • The number of red blood cells increase to cope with the demands of carrying extra oxygen. (Altitude training).
  • The capillary networks in muscles start to grow more and more branches and are therefore able to transport more blood. (Capilliarisation)
slide17

Long Term Effects of Exercise

  • AFTER AEROBIC TRAINING
  • CIRCULATORY IMPROVEMENTS
  • INCREASED BLOOD VOLUME(RBC) – increased levels of haemoglobin. Increased oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
  • ImprovedREDISTRIBUTION OF BLOODto active muscles.
  • INCREASED CAPILLARY NETWORKsurrounding the muscles, therefore more blood is transported to the muscles.
  • ARTERIAL WALLSbecomeMORE ELASTIC – allowed greater flow of blood to the working muscles.
slide18

THE CARDIAC (HEART) RESPONSE

  • HEARTbecomesand.
  • in resting heart rate.
  • Increased thickness and strength of the VENTRICULAR WALLcauses an increase in theSTROKE VOLUMEand a lowering of the resting pulse rate.
  • Larger stroke volume also means that there is an increase in maximal OUTPUT.
  • After exercise, the Heart Rate returns back to its normal resting levels faster than it did before training (IMPROVED
slide19

THE CARDIAC (HEART) RESPONSE

  • HEARTbecomesLARGERandSTRONGER.
  • DECREASEin resting heart rate.
  • Increased thickness and strength of theLEFT VENTRICULAR WALLcauses an increase in theSTROKE VOLUMEand a lowering of the resting pulse rate.
  • Larger stroke volume also means that there is an increase in maximalCARDIAC OUTPUT.
  • After exercise, the Heart Rate returns back to its normal resting levels faster than it did before training (IMPROVED RECOVERY).
slide20

RESPIRATORY RESPONSE

  • MoreALVEOLIin the lungs can be utilised – greater surface area for gaseous exchange.
  • GreaterCAPILLARISATIONof the alveoli – oxygen transfer further enhanced.
  • THE EFFECT ON TENDONS / LIGAMENTS / CARTILAGE
  • TheTENDONS, BONESandLIGAMENTSget stronger to cope with the increased load.
  • CARTILAGEmay increase to cope with the increased impact.
slide21

RECOVERY RESPONSE

  • This is a combination of the improvements witnessed in theHEARTandLUNGS.
  • The effect of this improvement is to allow moreOXYGENto become available forRECOVERYmore rapidly at the end of exercise.
  • Coupled with the improved transportation of oxygen is the improved transport ofCARBON DIOXIDEfrom the working muscles to the lungs.
  • Therefore improving the process ofLACTATE REMOVAL.