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Cognitive, Social Learning and CAPS. George Kelly. Personal Constructs Constructive Alternativism Convenience Heirarchy of constructs. Rotter. The “ psychological situation ” Behavior Potential BP= f( E + RV ) Expectancies Reinforcement Value Locus of Control. Bandura.

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Presentation Transcript
george kelly
George Kelly
  • Personal Constructs
  • Constructive Alternativism
  • Convenience
  • Heirarchy of constructs
  • The “psychological situation”
  • Behavior Potential BP= f( E + RV )
  • Expectancies
  • Reinforcement Value
  • Locus of Control
  • Observational learning
  • Self-regulation
  • Self-efficacy
  • Reciprocal interactionism
self regulation

Reinforcement has no direct effects (cognitively mediated or even vicarious)

Self-reinforcement is as important as external (internalized standards and processes of reward and punishment)

***Self-regulation overcomes stimulus control

self efficacy
  • 2 types of expectancies

Outcome expectancy


  • SE determines:

behavior to be performed

amount of effort expended

persistence in the face of adversity, etc.

reciprocal interactionism
Reciprocal interactionism

or Reciprocal Determinism

  • selecting environments
  • creating environments
  • transforming environments
mischel and caps theory
Mischel and CAPS theory
  • basic principles, concepts, assumptions:
  • focus on P X S interaction
  • include and integrate

Cognitive, Emotional, Motivational, Biological & Environmental factors

mischel and caps theory1
Mischel and CAPS theory
  • CAUs ( person variables)

1. Encodings (cognitive constructions)

2. Expectancies ( “if-then” behavior-outcome, self-efficacy)

3. Affects

4. Goals and Values

5. Competencies and Self-regulation

mischel cont
Mischel cont.
  • Personality coherence

individual differences in the “chronic accessibility”of CAUs

***consistency of variability across situations

shoda mischel wright
Shoda, Mischel & Wright

Summer camp study

When “psychological situation” varied, aggressive behavior varied in predictable ways in similar situations.

e.g., when teased by peers, when approached by adults, etc.

situation-behavior “signatures”

mischel cont1
Mischel cont.
  • Relative impact of person variables and situation variables (when does which take precedent?)
  • greater ambiguity and “response freedom”

greater influence of person variables (indiv. diff.)

the self
The self
  • I & me
  • Self-schemas (Markus, etc.)

readily accessible schema

  • Multiple selves: (Markus, Higgins, etc.)
  • Self-discrepancies (Higgins: Actual, Ideal, Ought)
causal attributions
Causal Attributions
  • Learned Helplessness
  • Pessimism and Optimism

Optimists are healthier, happier, and live longer