Cognitive, Social Learning and CAPS. George Kelly. Personal Constructs Constructive Alternativism Convenience Heirarchy of constructs. Rotter. The “ psychological situation ” Behavior Potential BP= f( E + RV ) Expectancies Reinforcement Value Locus of Control. Bandura.
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Reinforcement has no direct effects (cognitively mediated or even vicarious)
Self-reinforcement is as important as external (internalized standards and processes of reward and punishment)
***Self-regulation overcomes stimulus control
behavior to be performed
amount of effort expended
persistence in the face of adversity, etc.
or Reciprocal Determinism
Cognitive, Emotional, Motivational, Biological & Environmental factors
1. Encodings (cognitive constructions)
2. Expectancies ( “if-then” behavior-outcome, self-efficacy)
4. Goals and Values
5. Competencies and Self-regulation
individual differences in the “chronic accessibility”of CAUs
***consistency of variability across situations
Summer camp study
When “psychological situation” varied, aggressive behavior varied in predictable ways in similar situations.
e.g., when teased by peers, when approached by adults, etc.
greater influence of person variables (indiv. diff.)
readily accessible schema
Optimists are healthier, happier, and live longer