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COGNITIVE LEARNING. JEAN PIAGET. Jean Piaget http :// /assets/hip/us/ hip_us_pearsonhighered / samplechapter /0205314112.pdf.

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Cognitive learning



Jean Piaget

Piaget combined his background in biology with his interest in understanding how logic and knowledge develop and spent the rest of his career observing children and articulating his the- ory of cognitive development.

He applied several concepts from biology and used them to explain how knowledge develops.

Jean Piaget

Piaget’s theory is often described as a constructivist view.

According to constructivists, people interpret their environments and experiences in light of the knowledge and experiences they already have. People do not simply take in an external reality and develop an unchanged, exact mental copy of objects or events.

Instead, they build (or “construct”) their own individual understandings and knowledge.

Piaget’s Main Ideas Regarding Human Cognitin

According to Piaget cognitive activity consists of organization of information and the adaptation to the environment as the person perceives it.

Human beings organize knowledge into cognitive structures, and they modify these structures through the process of adaptation. During the process of adaptation, we assimilate information through existing cognitive structures and sometimes accommodate these previous structures as a result of the newly assimilated information

Proses Kognitif


A diagram of the information flow in Piaget's process of adaptation


Organization refers to the way information is organized in a person's mind with regard to a particular object, idea, or activity.

The organized information is called content. Piaget approaches organization logically, not biologically. He is concerned with the products and processes of human activity, not with the neurological or biological cells and organs responsible for this activity.

Information is organized into cognitive structures through the processes of assimilation and accommodation.

Organization is a dynamic, not static, process; structures are constantly changing and becoming more refined.

Cognitive Structure

Cognitive structures are organized sets of information, skills, or activities.

Cognitive structures can also be referred to as schemata (singular, schema).

Newborn babies have sucking schemata; older children have schemata for dogs and cats; and adults have schemata for population density, nuclear fission, and patriotism.

What most of us call concepts, Piaget calls cognitive structures or schemata.

Schema (Schemata)

A scheme is an organized pattern of action or thought.

It is a broad concept and can refer to organized patterns of physical action (such as an infant reaching to grasp an object), or mental action (such as a high school student thinking about how to solve an algebra problem)

He noticed, for example, that even infants have certain skills in regard to objects in their environment.  These skills were certainly simple ones, sensori-motor skills, but they directed the way in which the infant explored his or her environment and so how they gained more knowledge of the world and more sophisticated exploratory skills.  These skills he called schemas.

Schema (Schemata)

  • Schemas are repeated behaviours that babies and young children use to explore and understand the world. Examples of schema behaviour might be:

  • a baby continuously dropping objects over the side of a high chair and watching them fall to the floor

  • a toddler repeatedly bringing objects and placing them in an adult’s lap, or loading up a barrow or bucket with objects, then tipping them out again

  • a child who always climbs into an empty box, builds walls with big bricks and makes walls and fields for cars or small-world animals

  • a child who is interested in everything that turns – taps, doorknobs, keys, locks and wind-up toys.



The process by which a person takes material into their mind from the environment, which may mean changing the evidence of their senses to make it fit. 

Asimilasi : terjadi ketika individu menggabungkan informasi baru ke dalam pengetahuan mereka yang sudah ada

Assimilation is the process of using or transforming the environment so that it can be placed in preexisting cognitive structures.


  • In Assimilation, what is perceived in the outside world is incorporated into the internal world (note that I am not using Piagetian terminology), without changing the structure of that internal world, but potentially at the cost of "squeezing" the external perceptions to fit — hence pigeon-holing and stereotyping.

  •  If you are familiar with databases, you can think of it this way: your mind has its database already built, with its fields and categories already defined. If it comes across new information which fits into those fields, it can assimilate it without any trouble.



The difference made to one's mind or concepts by the process of assimilation. 

Akomodasi : terjadi ketika individu menyesuaikan diri dengan informasi baru

Accommodation is the process of changing cognitive structures in order to accept something from the environment. It changes the schema, so it can increase its efficiency (Campbell, 2006, p. 10).

Note that assimilation and accommodation go together: you can't have one without the other. 


Equilibration – is the force, which moves development along.  An unpleasant state of disequilibrium happens when new information cannot be fitted into existing schemas (assimilation).  Equilibration is the force, which drives the learning process as we do not like to be frustrated and will seek to restore balance by mastering the new challenge (accommodation).  Once the new information is acquired the process of assimilation with the new schema will continue until the next time we need to make an adjustment to it.

— Jean Piaget

Proses Kognitif

According to Piaget, the developmental ideal is a balance between assimilation and accommodation, which is also known as equilibrium.

Piaget believed when a balance between children’s mental schemas, which is a “...mental image produced in response to a stimulus that becomes a framework or basis for analyzing or responding to other related stimuli” and the external world has been reached, children are in a comfortable state of equilibrium (Agnes, 1999, p. 1282).


Assimilation and accommodation work like pendulum swings at advancing our understanding of the world and our competency in it.  According to Piaget, they are directed at a balance between the structure of the mind and the environment, at a certain congruency between the two, that would indicate that you have a good (or at least good-enough) model of the universe.  This ideal state he calls equilibrium.

Proses Kognitif

Thus, students have already mastered what has been taught and have confidence in their abilities to do or perform the assigned task. During this time, students are not in the process of acquiring new information or learning.

Disequilibrium occurs when children come across new environmental phenomena; these new environmental phenomena, however, often do not fit exactly into children’s mental schemas.

Students are drawn towards disequilibrium because of their curiosity. Teachers should use disequilibrium to motivate their students because it allows for changes in students’ mental structures.

Genetic Epistemology

Jean Piaget began his career as a biologist -- specifically, a malacologist.  But his interest in science and the history of science soon overtook his interest in snails and clams.  As he delved deeper into the thought-processes of doing science, he became interested in the nature of thought itself, especially in the development of thinking.  Finding relatively little work done in the area, he had the opportunity to give it a label.  He called it genetic epistemology, meaning the study of the development of knowledge.

Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage

  • Substage 1 (birth to 1 month)

    Building knowledge through reflexes (grasping, sucking)

  • Substage 2 (1 to 4 month)

    Reflexes are organized into larger, integrated behaviors (grasping a rattle and bringing it to the mouth to suck)

  • Substage 3 (4 to 8 month)

    Repetition of actions on the environment that bring out pleasing or interesting results (banging a rattle)

  • Substage 4 (8 to 12 month)

    Mentally representing objects when objects can no longer be seen, thus achieving “object permanence”

Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage

  • Substage 5 (12 to 18 month)

    Actively and avidly exploring the possible use to which objects can be put : Banging a spoon or cup on high chair to make different sounds, get attentin

  • Substage 6 (18 to 24 month)

    Able to form enduring mental representation, as demonstrated by “deferred imitatin” the repetition of others” behaviors minuts, hours, of days after it has occurred

Preoperational Stage

  • Symbolic Representation

    The use of one object to stand for another

  • Egocentrism

    Looking at the world only from one’s own point of vies

  • Centration : Focusing on one dimension of objects or events and on static states rather than transformation

Concrete Operation Stage

  • Conservation Concept – changing the appearance or arrangement of objects does not change their properties

  • Highly abstract thinking and reasoning about hypothetical situations still remains very difficult

Criticisms of Piaget’s Theory

Children’s thinking is not as consistent as the stages suggest

Infants and young children are more competent than Piaget recognized

Piaget understates the social components of cognitive development

Piaget was better at describing processes than explaining how they operate

Pandangan utama
Pandangan Utama

  • Konsepsi pengetahuan sebagai perubahan

  • Perbedaan kualitatif dalam interaksi individu dengan lingkungan (adaptasi)

  • Longitudinal

  • Interdisipliner (filsafat, psikologi dan biologi)

Faktor yang mempengaruhi perkembangan kognitif
Faktor yang mempengaruhi perkembangan kognitif

  • Lingkungan fisik

  • Kematangan

  • Pengaruh sosial

  • Equilibrasi (proses pengaturan diri)

Soal uts
Soal UTS

Seorang mahasiswa TP, memprogram mata kuliah Teori Belajar.