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Numerical Descriptive Techniques. Chapter 4. 4.2 Measures of Central Location . Usually, we focus our attention on two types of measures when describing population characteristics: Central location (e.g. average) Variability or spread.

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slide2

4.2 Measures of Central Location

  • Usually, we focus our attention on two types of measures when describing population characteristics:
    • Central location (e.g. average)
    • Variability or spread

The measure of central location reflects the locations of all the actual data points.

slide3

With one data point

clearly the central

location is at the point

itself.

4.2 Measures of Central Location

  • The measure of central location reflects the locations of all the actual data points.
  • How?

With two data points,

the central location

should fall in the middle

between them (in order

to reflect the location of

both of them).

But if the third data point

appears on the left hand-side

of the midrange, it should “pull”

the central location to the left.

the arithmetic mean

Sum of the observations

Number of observations

Mean =

The Arithmetic Mean
  • This is the most popular and useful measure of central location
the arithmetic mean1
The Arithmetic Mean

Sample mean

Population mean

Sample size

Population size

the arithmetic mean2

Example 4.2

Suppose the telephone bills of Example 2.1 represent

the populationof measurements. The population mean is

The arithmetic

mean

The Arithmetic Mean
  • Example 4.1

The reported time on the Internet of 10 adults are 0, 7, 12, 5, 33, 14, 8, 0, 9, 22 hours. Find the mean time on the Internet.

0

7

22

11.0

42.19

38.45

45.77

43.59

the median

Example 4.3

Find the median of the time on the internetfor the 10 adults of example 4.1

Suppose only 9 adults were sampled (exclude, say, the longest time (33))

Comment

Even number of observations

0, 0, 5, 7, 8,9, 12, 14, 22, 33

The Median
  • The Median of a set of observations is the value that falls in the middle when the observations are arranged in order of magnitude.

Odd number of observations

8

8.5,

0, 0, 5, 7, 89, 12, 14, 22

0, 0, 5, 7, 8,9, 12, 14, 22, 33

the mode
The Mode
  • The Mode of a set of observations is the value that occurs most frequently.
  • Set of data may have one mode (or modal class), or two or more modes.

For large data sets

the modal class is

much more relevant

than a single-value

mode.

The modal class

the mode1

The Mode

The Mean, Median,

Mode

The Mode
  • Example 4.5Find the mode for the data in Example 4.1. Here are the data again: 0, 7, 12, 5, 33, 14, 8, 0, 9, 22

Solution

      • All observation except “0” occur once. There are two “0”. Thus, the mode is zero.
      • Is this a good measure of central location?
      • The value “0” does not reside at the center of this set(compare with the mean = 11.0 and the mode = 8.5).
relationship among mean median and mode
Relationship among Mean, Median, and Mode
  • If a distribution is symmetrical, the mean, median and mode coincide
  • If a distribution is asymmetrical, and skewed to the left or to the right, the three measures differ.

A positively skewed distribution

(“skewed to the right”)

Mode

Mean

Median

relationship among mean median and mode1
Relationship among Mean, Median, and Mode
  • If a distribution is symmetrical, the mean, median and mode coincide
  • If a distribution is non symmetrical, and skewed to the left or to the right, the three measures differ.

A negatively skewed distribution

(“skewed to the left”)

A positively skewed distribution

(“skewed to the right”)

Mode

Mean

Mean

Mode

Median

Median

the geometric mean
The Geometric Mean
  • This is a measure of the average growth rate.
  • Let Ri denote the the rate of return in period i (i=1,2…,n). The geometric mean of the returns R1, R2, …,Rn is the constant Rg that produces the same terminal wealth at the end of period n as do the actual returns for the n periods.
the geometric mean1

The Geometric Mean

The Geometric Mean

For the given series of rate of

returns the nth period return is

calculated by:

If the rate of return was Rg in every

period, the nth period return would

be calculated by:

=

Rg is selected such that…

4 3 measures of variability
4.3 Measures of variability
  • Measures of central location fail to tell the whole story about the distribution.
  • A question of interest still remains unanswered:

How much are the observations spread out

around the mean value?

4 3 measures of variability1
4.3 Measures of variability

Observe two hypothetical

data sets:

Small variability

The average value provides

a good representation of the

observations in the data set.

This data set is now

changing to...

4 3 measures of variability2
4.3 Measures of variability

Observe two hypothetical

data sets:

Small variability

The average value provides

a good representation of the

observations in the data set.

Larger variability

The same average value does not

provide as good representation of the

observations in the data set as before.

the range

?

?

?

The range
  • The range of a set of observations is the difference between the largest and smallest observations.
  • Its major advantage is the ease with which it can be computed.
  • Its major shortcoming is its failure to provide information on the dispersion of the observations between the two end points.

But, how do all the observations spread out?

The range cannot assist in answering this question

Range

Largest

observation

Smallest

observation

the variance

This measure reflects the dispersion of all the observations

  • The variance of a population of size N x1, x2,…,xN whose mean is m is defined as
  • The variance of a sample of n observationsx1, x2, …,xn whose mean is is defined as
The Variance
why not use the sum of deviations

Sum = 0

Sum = 0

Why not use the sum of deviations?

Consider two small populations:

9-10= -1

A measure of dispersion

Should agrees with this

observation.

11-10= +1

Can the sum of deviations

Be a good measure of dispersion?

The sum of deviations is zero for both populations, therefore, is not a good measure of dispersion.

8-10= -2

A

12-10= +2

8

9

10

11

12

…but measurements in B

are more dispersed

then those in A.

The mean of both

populations is 10...

4-10 = - 6

16-10 = +6

B

7-10 = -3

13-10 = +3

4

7

10

13

16

the variance1
The Variance

Let us calculate the variance of the two populations

Why is the variance defined as

the average squared deviation?

Why not use the sum of squared

deviations as a measure of

variation instead?

After all, the sum of squared

deviations increases in

magnitude when the variation

of a data set increases!!

the variance2
The Variance

Let us calculate the sum of squared deviations for both data sets

Which data set has a larger dispersion?

Data set B

is more dispersed

around the mean

A

B

1

2

3

1

3

5

the variance3

SumA = (1-2)2 +…+(1-2)2 +(3-2)2 +… +(3-2)2= 10

SumB = (1-3)2 + (5-3)2 = 8

The Variance

SumA > SumB. This is inconsistent with the observation that set B is more dispersed.

A

B

1

3

1

2

3

5

the variance4
The Variance

However, when calculated on “per observation” basis (variance), the data set dispersions are properly ranked.

sA2 = SumA/N = 10/5 = 2

sB2 = SumB/N = 8/2 = 4

A

B

1

3

1

2

3

5

the variance5
The Variance
  • Example 4.7
    • The following sample consists of the number of jobs six students applied for: 17, 15, 23, 7, 9, 13. Finds its mean and variance
  • Solution
standard deviation
Standard Deviation
  • The standard deviation of a set of observations is the square root of the variance .
standard deviation1
Standard Deviation
  • Example 4.8
    • To examine the consistency of shots for a new innovative golf club, a golfer was asked to hit 150 shots, 75 with a currently used (7-iron) club, and 75 with the new club.
    • The distances were recorded.
    • Which 7-iron is more consistent?
standard deviation2

The Standard

Deviation

Standard Deviation
  • Example 4.8 – solution

Excel printout, from the “Descriptive Statistics” sub-menu.

The innovation club is more consistent, and because the means are close, is considered a better club

interpreting standard deviation
Interpreting Standard Deviation
  • The standard deviation can be used to
    • compare the variability of several distributions
    • make a statement about the general shape of a distribution.
  • The empirical rule: If a sample of observations has a mound-shaped distribution, the interval
interpreting standard deviation1
Interpreting Standard Deviation
  • Example 4.9A statistics practitioner wants to describe the way returns on investment are distributed.
    • The mean return = 10%
    • The standard deviation of the return = 8%
    • The histogram is bell shaped.
interpreting standard deviation2
Interpreting Standard Deviation

Example 4.9 – solution

  • The empirical rule can be applied (bell shaped histogram)
  • Describing the return distribution
    • Approximately 68% of the returns lie between 2% and 18% [10 – 1(8), 10 + 1(8)]
    • Approximately 95% of the returns lie between -6% and 26% [10 – 2(8), 10 + 2(8)]
    • Approximately 99.7% of the returns lie between -14% and 34% [10 – 3(8), 10 + 3(8)]
the chebysheff s theorem
The Chebysheff’s Theorem
  • The proportion of observations in any sample that lie within k standard deviations of the mean is at least 1-1/k2 for k > 1.
  • This theorem is valid for any set of measurements (sample, population) of any shape!!

K Interval Chebysheff Empirical Rule

1 at least 0% approximately 68%

2 at least 75% approximately 95%

3 at least 89% approximately 99.7%

(1-1/12)

(1-1/22)

(1-1/32)

the chebysheff s theorem1
The Chebysheff’s Theorem
  • Example 4.10
    • The annual salaries of the employees of a chain of computer stores produced a positively skewed histogram. The mean and standard deviation are $28,000 and $3,000,respectively. What can you say about the salaries at this chain?

SolutionAt least 75% of the salaries lie between $22,000 and $34,000 28000 – 2(3000) 28000 + 2(3000)

At least 88.9% of the salaries lie between $$19,000 and $37,000 28000 – 3(3000) 28000 + 3(3000)

the coefficient of variation
The Coefficient of Variation
  • The coefficient of variation of a set of measurements is the standard deviation divided by the mean value.
  • This coefficient provides a proportionate measure of variation.

A standard deviation of 10 may be perceived

large when the mean value is 100, but only

moderately large when the mean value is 500

4 4 measures of relative standing and box plots

Your score

4.4 Measures of Relative Standing and Box Plots
  • Percentile
    • The pth percentile of a set of measurements is the value for which
      • p percent of the observations are less than that value
      • 100(1-p) percent of all the observations are greater than that value.
    • Example
      • Suppose your score is the 60% percentile of a SAT test. Then

40%

60% of all the scores lie here

quartiles
Quartiles
  • Commonly used percentiles
    • First (lower)decile = 10th percentile
    • First (lower) quartile, Q1, = 25th percentile
    • Second (middle)quartile,Q2, = 50th percentile
    • Third quartile, Q3, = 75th percentile
    • Ninth (upper)decile = 90th percentile
quartiles1
Quartiles
  • Example

Find the quartiles of the following set of measurements 7, 8, 12, 17, 29, 18, 4, 27, 30, 2, 4, 10, 21, 5, 8

quartiles2

15 observations

Quartiles
  • Solution

Sort the observations

2, 4, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 17, 18, 18, 21, 27, 29, 30

The first quartile

At most (.25)(15) = 3.75 observations

should appear below the first quartile.

Check the first 3 observations on the

left hand side.

At most (.75)(15)=11.25 observations

should appear above the first quartile.

Check 11 observations on the

right hand side.

Comment:If the number of observations is even, two observations remain unchecked. In this case choose the midpoint between these two observations.

location of percentiles
Location of Percentiles
  • Find the location of any percentile using the formula
  • Example 4.11

Calculate the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile of the data in Example 4.1

location of percentiles1

0 5

Values

3.75

0

2.75

2 3

Location

1

Location

Location 3

The 2.75th location

Translates to the value

(.75)(5 – 0) = 3.75

Location of Percentiles
  • Example 4.11 – solution
    • After sorting the data we have 0, 0, 5, 7, 8, 9, 22, 33.
location of percentiles2
Location of Percentiles
  • Example 4.11 – solution continued

The 50th percentile is halfway between the fifth and sixth observations (in the middle between 8 and 9), that is 8.5.

location of percentiles3
Location of Percentiles
  • Example 4.11 – solution continued

The 75th percentile is one quarter of the distance between the eighth and ninth observation that is14+.25(22 – 14) = 16.

Eighth

observation

Ninth

observation

quartiles and variability
Quartiles and Variability
  • Quartiles can provide an idea about the shape of a histogram

Q1 Q2 Q3

Q1 Q2 Q3

Positively skewed

histogram

Negatively skewed

histogram

interquartile range
Interquartile Range
  • This is a measure of the spread of the middle 50% of the observations
  • Large value indicates a large spread of the observations

Interquartile range = Q3 – Q1

box plot

1.5(Q3 – Q1)

1.5(Q3 – Q1)

Whisker

Whisker

Box Plot
  • This is a pictorial display that provides the main descriptive measures of the data set:
    • L - the largest observation
    • Q3 - The upper quartile
    • Q2 - The median
    • Q1 - The lower quartile
    • S - The smallest observation

S

Q1

Q2

Q3

L

box plot1
Box Plot
  • Example 4.14 (Xm02-01)

Left hand boundary = 9.275–1.5(IQR)= -104.226

Right hand boundary=84.9425+ 1.5(IQR)=198.4438

0

-104.226

9.275

198.4438

84.9425

119.63

26.905

No outliers are found

box plot2
Box Plot
  • Additional Example - GMAT scores

Create a box plot for the data regarding the GMAT scores of 200 applicants (see GMAT.XLS)

417.5

449

512

537

575

669.5

788

575+1.5(IQR)

512-1.5(IQR)

box plot3
Box Plot

GMAT - continued

  • Interpreting the box plot results
    • The scores range from 449 to 788.
    • About half the scores are smaller than 537, and about half are larger than 537.
    • About half the scores lie between 512 and 575.
    • About a quarter lies below 512 and a quarter above 575.

Q1

512

Q2

537

Q3

575

449

669.5

25%

50%

25%

box plot4
Box Plot

GMAT - continued

The histogram is positively skewed

Q1

512

Q2

537

Q3

575

449

669.5

25%

50%

25%

50%

25%

25%

box plot5
Box Plot
  • Example 4.15 (Xm04-15)
    • A study was organized to compare the quality of service in 5 drive through restaurants.
    • Interpret the results
  • Example 4.15 – solution
    • Minitab box plot
box plot6
Box Plot

Jack in the Box

Jack in the box is the slowest in service

Hardee’s service time variability is the largest

Hardee’s

McDonalds

Wendy’s service time appears to be the shortest and most consistent.

Wendy’s

Popeyes

box plot7

Times are symmetric

Times are positively skewed

Box Plot

Jack in the Box

Jack in the box is the slowest in service

Hardee’s service time variability is the largest

Hardee’s

McDonalds

Wendy’s service time appears to be the shortest and most consistent.

Wendy’s

Popeyes

4 5 measures of linear relationship
4.5 Measures of Linear Relationship
  • The covariance and the coefficient of correlation are used to measure the direction and strength of the linear relationship between two variables.
    • Covariance - is there any pattern to the way two variables move together?
    • Coefficient of correlation - how strong is the linear relationship between two variables
covariance

x (y) is the sample mean of the variable X (Y).

n is the sample size.

Covariance

mx (my) is the population mean of the variable X (Y).

N is the population size.

covariance1
Covariance
  • Compare the following three sets
covariance2
Covariance
  • If the two variables move in the same direction, (both increase or both decrease), the covariance is a large positive number.
  • If the two variables move in opposite directions, (one increases when the other one decreases), the covariance is a large negative number.
  • If the two variables are unrelated, the covariance will be close to zero.
the coefficient of correlation
The coefficient of correlation
  • This coefficient answers the question: How strong is the association between X and Y.
slide58

The coefficient of correlation

+1

0

-1

Strong positive linear relationship

COV(X,Y)>0

or

r or r =

No linear relationship

COV(X,Y)=0

COV(X,Y)<0

Strong negative linear relationship

the coefficient of correlation1
The coefficient of correlation
  • If the two variables are very strongly positively related, the coefficient value is close to +1 (strong positive linear relationship).
  • If the two variables are very strongly negatively related, the coefficient value is close to -1 (strong negative linear relationship).
  • No straight line relationship is indicated by a coefficient close to zero.
the coefficient of correlation and the covariance example 4 16
The coefficient of correlation and the covariance – Example 4.16
  • Compute the covariance and the coefficient of correlation to measure how GMAT scores and GPA in an MBA program are related to one another.
  • Solution
    • We believe GMAT affects GPA. Thus
      • GMAT is labeled X
      • GPA is labeled Y
the coefficient of correlation and the covariance example 4 161
The coefficient of correlation and the covariance – Example 4.16

Student x y x2 y2 xy

9.6

1

599

358801

92.16

5750.4

cov(x,y)=(1/12-1)[67,559.2-(7587)(106.4)/12]=26.16

Sx = {(1/12-1)[4,817,755-(7587)2/12)]}.5=43.56

Sy = similar to Sx = 1.12

r = cov(x,y)/SxSy = 26.16/(43.56)(1.12) = .5362

2

689

8.8

474721

77.44

6063.2

3

584

7.4

341056

54.76

4321.6

………………………………………………….

4

631

10

398161

100

6310

11

593

8.8

351649

77.44

5218.4

12

683

8

466489

64

5464

Total

7,587

106.4

4,817,755

957.2

67,559.2

the coefficient of correlation and the covariance example 4 16 excel

12

12-1

´

The coefficient of correlation and the covariance – Example 4.16 – Excel
  • Use the Covariance option in Data Analysis
  • If your version of Excel returns the population covariance and variances, multiply each one by n/n-1 to obtain the corresponding sample values.
  • Use the Correlation option to produce the correlation matrix.

Variance-Covariance Matrix

Population

values

Population

values

Sample

values

Sample

values

the coefficient of correlation and the covariance example 4 16 excel1
The coefficient of correlation and the covariance – Example 4.16 – Excel
  • Interpretation
    • The covariance (26.16) indicates that GMAT score and performance in the MBA program are positively related.
    • The coefficient of correlation (.5365) indicates that there is a moderately strong positive linear relationship between GMAT and MBA GPA.
the least squares method
The Least Squares Method
  • We are seeking a line that best fits the data when two variables are (presumably) related to one another.
  • We define “best fit line” as a line for which the sum of squared differences between it and the data points is minimized.

The y value of point i

calculated from the

equation

The actual y value of point i

the least squares method1

Errors

Errors

The least Squares Method

Y

X

Different lines generate different errors,

thus different sum of squares of errors.

There is a line that minimizes the sum of squared errors

the least squares method2
The least Squares Method

The coefficients b0 and b1 of the line that minimizes the sum of squares of errors are calculated from the data.

the least squares method3
The Least Squares Method
  • Example 4.17
    • Find the least squares line for Example 4.16 (Xm04-16.xls)