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Descriptive Research Techniques Survey Techniques Week 6 Study Materials for Module 6 Study Book Module 6 Cavana – Ch 10: pp. 225-6; 239-46. Ch 14: pp 351-60 Selected Reading 6.1 & 6.2 (only business students) Jennings – Ch 8: pp. 227-44; 254-62. Ch 10: pp.328-38

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descriptive research techniques

Descriptive Research Techniques

Survey Techniques

Week 6

study materials for module 6
Study Materials for Module 6
  • Study Book Module 6
  • Cavana – Ch 10: pp. 225-6; 239-46. Ch 14: pp 351-60
  • Selected Reading 6.1 & 6.2 (only business students)
  • Jennings – Ch 8: pp. 227-44; 254-62. Ch 10: pp.328-38
  • Additional reading from Burns & Bush for section 6.4 & 6.6 (mailed)
  • Coakes and Steed Ch 4

(oncampus students); Ch 3 (external students)

lecture overview
Lecture overview
  • Descriptive research design
  • Survey method
    • Advantages & disadvantages
    • Data collection modes
    • Survey Methods
    • Factors to consider when selecting a survey method
    • Types of surveys
    • Combination survey methods
    • Factors determining the choice of a particular survey method
  • Increasing response rate
    • techniques
  • Ethical issues
  • Report writing
  • Summary
  • Tutorial
descriptive research design
Descriptive Research Design
  • What is it
    • Research that uses a set of scientific methods and procedures to collect raw data and create data structures that describe the existing characteristics of a defined target population or market structure.
    • To describe the characteristics of relevant groups ie users of a shopping centre; users of a theme park
    • To estimate the % of units in a population exhibiting a certain behaviour
    • To determine perceptions of product/service characteristics by a specific group ie friendliness and is this variable an important choice criteria
    • Estimates of the proportions of a population with a certain characteristic
    • Discovery of associations among different variables
    • To make specific predictions ie. to predict the level of sales for the next 5 years for hiring & training purposes; prediction of the number of inbound tourism for the next 5 years
purpose
Purpose
  • Major proportion of market research
  • Most common technique - Survey method
  • describes characteristics of a population or phenomenon eg
    • demographics & sociodemographic profile
    • psychographics
    • attitudes
    • intentions
    • preferences
    • decision making & purchase behaviour
    • statistics on inbound & outbound travel
    • purpose of travel
two types of descriptive research studies
Two types of Descriptive Research studies
  • Cross – sectional studies

a sample of elements selected from the population of interest that are measured at a point in time – sample survey (also called one-shot studies)

  • Longitudinal studies

a fixed sample of elements that is measured repeatedly through time

    • Panel (true) - repeated measures of the same variables over time
    • Panel (omnibus) – variables that change from measurement to measurement
survey method
Survey Method
  • Is based on a structured questionnaire given to a sample of a population and designed to elicit specific information from respondents.
  • Referred to as - quantitative survey method (large no. of responses suitable for statistical analysis)
advantages of survey methods
Advantages of survey methods
  • accommodate large sample sizes; increases generalisability of results
  • standardisation – all respondents react to questions worded identically; response options (scales) are the same
  • administrative ease – much simpler than a focus group/ indepth interview; development of questionnaire is a more complex process than the administration
  • ability of tapping into factors & relationships that are not directly observable ie attitudes, feelings, preferences
  • tabulation and statistical analysis of data
  • subgroup differences
disadvantage of survey methods
Disadvantage of survey methods
  • difficulty of developing accurate survey instruments (questionnaire design)
  • limits to the in-depth detail of data
  • lack of control over timeliness, & potential low response rates
  • difficulties to determine if respondents are responding truthfully
  • misinterpretation of data results & inappropriate use of data analysis procedures
data collection modes
Data collection modes
  • a person interviews the respondent
  • electronic assisted or directly asks the question of the respondent
  • the respondent completes a questionnaire
survey methods
Survey methods
  • mail
    • mail interview, mail panels
  • personal ( interviewer–completed & self-completed eg. National census)
    • personal in-home interview
      • CAPI - computer assisted personal interviewing
      • Omnibus – Roy Morgan Consumer Opinion Trends
    • central location – airport, shopping mall; clinic & consumer lab
  • telephone
    • Traditional telephone interviewing
    • use of technology – CATI – computer-assisted telephone interviewing; CATS – computer automated telephone systems
  • electronic
    • E-mail interviews
    • Internet/web interviews through WWW sites & links
  • www.customersat.comwww.questionpro.com
factors to consider when selecting a survey method
rapport with respondent

accessibility of respondent

speed of obtaining results

importance of physical presentation

perceived anonymity of respondent

hard to recall data obtainable

Factors to consider when selecting a survey method
  • Interview bias
  • need for supervision of interviews
  • depth of questioning/probing
  • economy/cost
  • response rate
  • geographic reach
types of surveys
Types of surveys
  • structured versus unstructured
    • structured-formal standardised questions used
    • unstructured -informal, no standardised questions
    • degree of structure influences choice of media
  • disguised versus undisguised
    • disguise - the concealing of purpose or sponsorship of a study until completion
    • undisguised - respondent is aware of purpose and sponsor of research
1 mail
1. Mail
  • advantages
    • no interviewer bias
    • can respond at leisure/no pressure
    • high geographic flexibility
    • can use visuals
    • cost confined to mailing list, forms and postage
    • more confidential information
    • follow up easy but time consuming
slide15
Mail
  • disadvantages
    • low response rate
    • high cost per response
    • long time delays
    • no probing/observation
    • can read entire questionnaire before answering which may influence response
    • higher possibility misunderstand (cannot seek clarification)
    • never sure that the target respondent actually answered the questions
    • complex questions not responded to well
    • open-ended questions do not achieve lengthy written responses
2 personal
2. Personal
  • advantages
    • persuasion/cooperation
    • better response rate
    • use observation
    • can use visual material
    • longer questionnaires
    • provide assistance to interviewee
    • more precise selection of sample
    • more versatile questioning
    • extended probing possible
    • if self-completed, respondent can complete when convenient
personal
Personal
  • disadvantages
    • travel time and expenses high
    • people reluctant to talk to strangers
    • interviewers presence may bias
    • inhibited
    • difficult to supervise and control
    • difficult to recruit capable interviewers
    • geographic flexibility limited
    • call back/follow up difficult
    • no anonymity of interviewees
    • Self-completed – disadvantages similar to mail
3 telephone
3. Telephone
  • advantages
    • dialling efficient especially call backs
    • travel avoided
    • respondent does not have to open door to strangers
    • geographic coverage good
    • supervision and training excellent
    • speed of data collection
    • less interviewer bias
    • greater anonymity of respondents
telephone
Telephone
  • disadvantages
    • no observation
    • visuals precluded
    • retaining attention more difficult therefore shorter questionnaires
    • suspicion/hostility
    • only homes with telephones
    • cost can be a factor with STD calls in Australia
    • there is limited interview times pertaining to the best times for making and gaining responses
    • Interviewer is unable to control the interview; the respondent can hang up at any time
4 electronic
4. electronic
  • advantages
    • easy to administer
    • speed of response/ data collection
    • easy of development and testing
    • little cost of administration
electronic
electronic
  • disadvantages
    • the possibility of data corruption via virus transmission
    • possible unreliability of e-lists
    • are respondents representative of the population
    • possibility of bogus replies
combination
Combination
  • Internet/mail
  • telephone/mail
  • telephone/personal
  • mail/personal
factors determining the choice of a particular survey method
Factors determining the choice of a particular survey method
  • researcher’s resources & objectives
    • Time horizon
    • Budget
    • Desired quality of data
      • generalisability
      • completeness & precision
  • respondent characteristics
    • Incident rate
    • Willingness to participate
    • Ability to participate
    • Diversity of respondents
  • type of questions asked
    • Complexity
    • Topic sensitivity
    • Amount of information required per respondent
increasing response rates
Increasing response rates
  • Response Rate: The number of questionnaires returned or completed divided by the number of eligible people who were contacted or requested to participate in the survey
techniques to increase response rates
Techniques to increase response rates
  • cover letter / intro letter
  • money or other incentives
  • interesting questions and presentation
  • follow ups
  • advance notification
  • survey sponsorship
  • return postage
  • NOTE: Figure 6.2 on page 6.9 of the study book
    • Provide rewards
    • Minimise costs
    • Establish trust
ethical issues
Ethical issues
  • research integrity
  • relationships with buyers and sellers
  • research confidentiality
  • society’s welfare

(Note: these points are developed further in the Burns & Bush handout)

report writing
Report writing
  • Refer to your text for further reading in this area.
  • Cavana et al – Ch 14: pp. 351-60
  • Jennings - Ch 10: pp. 328-38
next week
Next Week

Measurement

and

Scaling

summary
Summary
  • Descriptive research design
  • Survey method
    • Advantages & disadvantages
    • Survey Methods
    • Combination survey methods
    • Factors determining the choice of a particular survey method
  • Increasing response rate
  • Ethical issues
  • Report writing
  • Summary
  • Tutorial
tutorial
Tutorial
  • Presentation
  • Discussion focussed on operational issues in relation to the 4 main survey methods
  • SPSS – Ch 4 Descriptive statistics – continuation from last week