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Smells, Tastes & Functional Groups!. 1. Functional Groups: are structural features that show up repeatedly in molecules and seem to account for some of their chemical properties (ex: smell). What are the main functional groups?. KETONE (carbon double-bonded to an oxygen).

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slide1

Smells, Tastes

&

Functional

Groups!

slide2

1. Functional Groups: are structural features that show up repeatedly in molecules and seem to account for some of their chemical properties(ex: smell).

what are the main functional groups
What are the main functional groups?

KETONE

(carbon double-bonded to an oxygen)

slide4

What are the main functional groups?

ESTER

(carbon double-bonded to an oxygen & attached to another oxygen atom which is attached to another carbon)

slide5

What are the main functional groups?

CARBOXYLIC ACID

(carbon double-bonded to an oxygen & attached to another oxygen atom which is attached to a hydrogen)

slide6

What are the main functional groups?

AMINE

(carbon bonded to a nitrogen atom)

slide7

What are the main functional groups?

ALCOHOL

(carbon bonded to an oxygen bonded to a hydrogen atom)

slide13

5

Structural Formula: A drawing or diagram that a chemist uses to show how the atoms in a molecule are connected. It is a 2D picture of the molecule. Structural formulas show how the atoms in a molecule are put together. #3 on this page shows _____ (how many?) structural formulas.

Molecular Formula: The shorthand notation a chemist uses to show how many atoms of each element are present in a particular molecule or the ratio of ions in an ionic formula. Ex: H2O

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6. Bond: A connection between atoms in a molecule. In structural formulas, the covalent bonds are represented as _______________. Double bond = 2 lines together. How many lines would you need for a triple bond? ______.

lines

3

slide15

yes

We saw this in the smell lab—2 substances had the formula C4H8O2 but one smelled putrid & the other smelled sweet!

**Question to ponder: Can molecules have the same molecular formula and smell differently? Answer: _________

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A. Examine the following molecules. What patterns do you see in the bonding of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon & nitrogen?

Vial K—Fishy, diisobutylamine Vial E—Minty, menthone

a. How many bonds (lines) do carbons always have around them? ___ b. How about nitrogen atoms? ___ c. How about hydrogen atoms? ___ d. How about oxygen atoms? ___

4

3

2

1

what do you think the rule honc 1234 means
What do you think the rule HONC—1234 means?

HONC 1234

H = 1 bond

O = 2 bonds

N = 3 bonds

C = 4 bonds

(H-1) (O-2) (N-3) (C-4)

how it s done
How it’s done
  • Start with the carbon atoms. Connect them together.
  • Now insert the nitrogen, oxygen, or other atoms. Remember, they may connect on the ends of the carbon chain, or somewhere in the middle.
  • Fill in with the hydrogen atoms.
  • Problem-solve until you have the correct number of bonds for each element.

***Tip: things that can form more bonds are more likely to show up in the middle of the structure***

you try
You try

D. Draw each of the following molecules:

  • CH4 b. CH4O c. CH5N

E. Draw C4H10 correctly, but in two different ways!

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Isomer: two or more molecules that are composed of the same elements in the same proportions (in other words, they have the same molecular formula) (ex: C4H10 above) but differ in properties because of differences in structural formulas.