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Summarizing & Note Taking

7th Grade Life SciencePresented byLindsay OserTeron JacksonResearch-Based Strategies for Increasing Student AchievementFromClassroom Instruction that WorksbyR. Marzano, D. Pickering, J. PollockCreated by The School District of Lee County, CSDC in conjunction with Cindy Harrison, Adams 12 Five Star Schools

participant outcomes
Participant Outcomes

Participants will:

  • Understand the purpose and importance of summarizing and note taking
  • Identify ways to implement summarizing and note taking in the classroom
  • Review examples of summarizing and note taking activities
summarizing
Summarizing

Discussion question:

How do you currently teach students in your classroom to summarize information to enhance student learning?

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Research and Theory aboutSummarizing

  • Generalizations based on research:
  • Students must delete, substitute, and keep some information when summarizing.
  • Deep analysis is needed in order to do #1.
  • Must be aware of explicit structure of information.
research and theory about summarizing
Research and Theory aboutSummarizing

Generalization #1:

Students must delete, substitute, and keep some information when summarizing.

  • Condensing information
  • Looking for patterns
  • Distilling (extracting) and synthesizing information
  • Modeling by teachers
research and theory about summarizing1
Research and Theory aboutSummarizing

Generalization #2:

To effectively delete, substitute, and keep information, students must analyze the information at a fairly deep level.

  • Seems simple but requires analyzing content
  • Students need practice to be good at analyzing information

Generalization #3:

Must be aware of explicit structure of information.

  • Most writers present information with an explicit structure or pattern. The more students understand these structures, the better they are able to summarize information.
recommendations for classroom practice on summarizing
Recommendations for Classroom Practice onSummarizing
  • Teach the “Rule-Based” Strategy
    • Follows a set of rules that produce a summary
slide11
The Ebola virus is named for the Ebola River in Africa. In 1976, the first known outbreak of Ebola killed half of the men, women, and children in a Sudan village; 60 percent of those who were infected died. Two months later, a more deadly form of Ebola swept through 50 villages in nearby Zaire. It killed more than 430 people, 90 percent of those infected. Both times, the virus was controlled by isolating its victims.
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The first Ebola virus outbreak in 1976, killed 60% of the people in a Sudan village. A more deadly form killed 90% in 50 villages in Zaire. The virus was controlled by isolating the victims.
recommendations for classroom practice on summarizing2
Recommendations for Classroom Practice onSummarizing
  • Use Summary Frames
    • Choose frame to match information type
    • 6 different types of frames
      • Narrative
      • Topic-restriction-illustration
      • Definition
      • Argumentation
      • Problem/solution
      • Conversation
narrative story frame
Narrative/Story Frame
  • Who are the characters?
  • What is the setting?
  • What is the initiating event?
  • What did the characters do?
  • What were the consequences?
  • What was the end resolution?
examples
Examples
  • The Lorax
  • Movies, videos, or films
  • Magazine articles
  • Science Journals
topic restriction illustration frame
Topic-Restriction Illustration Frame
  • Topic: general statement about the topic to be discussed
  • Restriction: information that limits the topic in some way
  • Illustration: examples of the topic or restriction
t r i frame
T-R-I Frame

The events of photosynthesis can be summed up in a chemical equation. The raw materials—six molecules of carbon dioxide and six molecules of water—are on the left side of the equation. The products—one molecule of glucose and six molecules of oxygen—are on the right side of the equation. An arrow connects the raw materials to the products. Light energy, which is necessary for the chemical reaction to occur, is written above the arrow.

example
Example

T- Photosynthesis

R- Carbon dioxide, water, sunlight

I- equation of photosynthesis

definition frame
Definition Frame
  • What is being defined?
  • To which general category does the item belong?
  • What characteristics separate the item from other things in the general category?
  • What are some of the types of the item being defined?
example1
Example
  • Cell Transport video clip
definition frame1
Definition Frame
  • Concept: Cell Transport
  • General category: Cell Processes
  • Characteristics that separate the item from other things in the general category: Movement of Materials vs. Building and Reproducing
  • Types of the item: Active and Passive
argumentation frame
Argumentation Frame
  • Evidence= What information is presented that leads to a claim?
  • Claim: What is the basic statement or claim that is the focus of the information?
  • Support: What examples or explanations are presented to support this claim?
  • Qualifier: What concessions are made about the claim?
example2
Example
  • Summarizing ethical questions
    • Stem cell research
    • Use of laboratory animals
    • Cloning
    • Evolution
    • Use of resources/land development
    • Any others?
problem solution frame
Problem/Solution Frame
  • What is the problem?
  • What is a possible solution?
  • What is another possible solution?
  • Which solution has the best chance of succeeding?
melaleuca are an exotic and invasive species
Melaleuca are an Exotic and invasive species
  • Think about the possible solutions
  • Discuss these with a partner for two minutes

Think Pair Share

potential means of eliminating the melaleuca tree
Potential Means of eliminating the Melaleuca Tree
  • Fire
  • Cutting
  • Ring the tree
  • Poison
  • Beetle
the conversation frame
The Conversation Frame
  • How did they greet each other?
  • What was the subject?
  • How did their discussion progress?
  • How did the conversation end?
example3
Example
  • Role playing
  • Skits/plays
  • Current events
  • Others?
recommendations for classroom practice on summarizing3
Recommendations for Classroom Practice onSummarizing
  • Teach Students Reciprocal Teaching
    • 4 step process
      • Summarizing
      • Questioning
      • Clarifying
      • Predicting
reciprocal teaching
Reciprocal Teaching

Contains 4 Components:

  • Summarizing- where student leader summarizes what was read
  • Questioning- student leader asks questions to identify important information
  • Clarifying- student leader tries to clarify confusing points
  • Predicting- student leader asks for predictions of what will occur in the next segment
what is the first lesson where you could use reciprocal teaching
What is the first lesson where you could use Reciprocal Teaching?
  • Take two minutes and discuss this with your partner?
what is the first lesson where you could use reciprocal teaching1
What is the first lesson where you could use Reciprocal Teaching?
  • Classroom Rules
  • Course Syllabus/Objectives
  • Safety Contract
  • Scientific method
  • Nature of Science
  • Others
note taking
Note Taking

Discussion statement:

It is appropriate for the teacher to provide students with a complete set of notes on a topic.”

Do you…

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Research and Theory aboutNote Taking

  • Generalizations based on research:
  • Verbatim note taking is least effective.
  • Should be a work in progress.
  • Should be used as study guides for tests.
  • The more notes taken, the better.
research and theory about note taking
Research and Theory aboutNote Taking

Generalization #1:

Verbatim note taking is least effective.

  • Not engaged in synthesis
  • Only recording, not analyzing

Generalization #2:

Should be a work in progress.

  • Continually add to notes
  • Revise notes
  • Time to review notes
research and theory about note taking1
Research and Theory aboutNote Taking

Generalization #3:

Should be used as study guides for tests.

  • If well done, powerful study guide

Generalization #4:

The more notes taken, the better.

  • Strong correlation between amount of notes and achievement on exams
recommendations for classroom practice on note taking
Recommendations for Classroom Practice onNote Taking

Teach Multiple Formats

1. Teacher Prepared Notes

2. Combination Notes

3. Informal Outline

4. Webbing – (graphic organizer)

5. Cornell Notes – two column (not McRel)

recommendations for classroom practice on note taking1
Recommendations for Classroom Practice onNote Taking

1. Give Teacher-Prepared Notes

  • Model
recommendations for classroom practice on note taking2
Recommendations for Classroom Practice onNote Taking

2. Use Combination Notes

Uses 3 parts:

  • Informal outlining
  • Graphic representation
  • summary
combination notes
Combination Notes

Regular notes

Symbol, picture

or graphic

Summary

informal outlines
Informal Outlines
  • Note-taking strategy which uses indentation to indicate major ideas and their related details
webbing
Webbing
  • Note-taking strategy

-uses the relative size of circles to indicate the importance of ideas

-uses lines to indicate relationships

Advantage- provides a visual representation of the information

Disadvantage-limits the amount of information that can be stored because the circles can only hold so many words

using a whip
Using a whip

What have you learned about summarizing and note taking?