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NT(IBS)530 GOSPEL OF MARK

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  1. NT(IBS)530GOSPEL OF MARK • CONTEXTUAL HERMENEUTIC • NOTE-TAKING GUIDE

  2. Class Emphases • Content • Canonical Placement • Programmatic Events, Themes • Existential Urgency

  3. Class Emphases • Method • Institutional Commitment:           Plant Orchard • Level I “IBS” • Several Profs, Same Dept. & Stance

  4. Class Emphases • Convictions • Centrality of Scripture to wholistic ministry • Every minister a skilled and thoughtful interpreter • Variety of gifts exercised from foundation of essentials • “Long obedience” vs. method fads

  5. WHAT THIS CLASS IS ABOUT • Learning to hear God’s Voice in Scripture as an “active listener” -- a very active listener.

  6. CONTEXTUALHERMENEUTIC • Hermeneutics:“The science of understanding written documents“to explain, interpret, translate” • Contextual:Developed from Scripture’s contexts and our own as well.

  7. IBS MADE SIMPLE:“THE 5 Cs” • Consecration: prayer • Content: observation • Concept: interpretation • Canon: evaluation • Conduct: application

  8. METHOD PREVIEW • Consecration“...all in the name of the Lord...” • ObservationWhat did the writer(s) write? • InterpretationWhat did the writer mean? • EvaluationHow does this text speak cross-culturally? • ApplicationHow should we then live?

  9. Faith Context SOME CONVICTIONS • CENTRAL. Interpretation of the Bible--precise, specific, penetrating-- is central to Christian ministry and the nurturing of the people of God. • CONSTITUTIONAL. All Christian ministers are professional Bible interpreters. • FOUNDATIONAL. Bible interpretation is foundational for all ministry and all theological disciplines.

  10. Faith Context SOME CONVICTIONS • COMMUNAL. Good interpretation is both individual - direct and communal-collegial • Community of Christian faith • Respected colleagues past & present • Community of negative or alternate faith • Truth & grace not confined to the faithful

  11. Contextual HermeneuticFAITH CONTEXT METHOD IMPLICATIONS • Prayer and illumination of God’s Spirit as serious considerations • Avid attention to Scripture itself a life-death priority (cf. Genesis 1-2; Psalm 1; 119; John 6:68) • Spiritual disciplines; means of grace

  12. Contextual Hermeneutic“LISTENER’S” CONTEXT FOUNDATIONS • Theological Foundation: • Revelation as communication • Scripture as revelation • Theoretical Foundation: • Communication Matrix

  13. Contextual Hermeneutic God Reader - Listener Writer(s) Think Ancient & “Modern” Space - Time Barrier Moves Purposeful Writing Major Link w. Mind of writer and God Complex, Varied cf. Amos, Proverbs, Psalter, Gospels, Philemon Written Text Writer’s Thoughts [& God’s!”] Communication Matrix as a model for biblical hermeneutic

  14. METHOD IMPLICATIONS OF COMMUNICATION MATRIX • Listening as a Method Priority (Oral Communication) Speaker Message Hearer • Observation as a Method Priority (Written Communication) Writer Message Reader

  15. Interpretive Method • Method: a step by step process that makes it possible: 1. To discover the past-historical meaning of the biblical text; and 2. To relate this original, historical meaning to contemporary situations and problems

  16. Method Implications ofObservation Priority • Direct observation • vs. Bible as collateral, study of professor’s notes, etc. • Initially inductive mode • Evidence Conclusions|versus • Initially deductive mode • Premise or a priori theological claim Conclusions

  17. I. OBSERVATIONWhat did the writer write? • Explanatory Metaphors • Detective Accurate, precise observation • Communication ModelActive listening

  18. Observations Analysis Consultation (Secondary Research) •Commentaries •Word Study Volumes •Theologies •Encyclopedias •Journal Articles •History of Interpretation Questions-Possibilities Paragraph-Level Detailed Analysis Segment-Level Analysis/Survey Research Book-Level Analysis/Survey (Primary Research) Hermeneutics“Making sense of Biblical Texts” Dependence on the Spirit Prayer Humility I. Historical Interpretation “What the text meant to historical authors/readers” Inductive-Independent Work Interactive Work

  19. Hermeneutics (a la JDongell)“Making sense of Biblical Texts” Dependence on the Spirit Prayer Humility I. Historical Interpretation “What the text meant to historical authors/readers” A. Inductive-Independent Work Primary Sources Analysis (Obs -->> Inf) Research Beyond Bible Text QuestionsPossibilities Paragraph-Level Detailed Analysis • Lexicons• Grammars • Syntaxes • Texts • Artifacts Segment-Level Analysis/Survey Book-Level Analysis/Survey Primary Source

  20. LITERARY NATURE OF THE “MESSAGE”: OBSERVATION AGENDAS • Multi-language availability of the text implies flexibility in textual base (Tensions of Revelation in History) Particularityof inscripturation of revelation Process of transmission & translation vs.

  21. LITERARY “MESSAGE”: OBSERVATION AGENDAS (Tensions of Revelation in History) Stabalized (canonical?) text Translations Revisions vs. • Stabilized text: -->> Touchstone Status of Biblical Language Study • Authoritative Translation/revision: -->> Vernacular as “Word of God” and worthy of serious study

  22. Contextual Hermeneutic God Reader - Listener Writer(s) Think Ancient & “Modern” Space - Time Barrier Moves Major Link w. Mind of writer and God Purposeful Writing Complex, Varied cf. Amos, Proverbs, Psalter, Gospels, Philemon Observe (Partial - Indispensable) Written Text Implied Method Priority Writer’s Thoughts [& God’s “Thought’s”!] 1. Discreet Units 2. Form & Genre 3. Structured 4. Canon Intuitive Understanding Immediate, Partial, Culture-conditioned

  23. LITERARY “MESSAGE”: OBSERVATION AGENDAS • Unitary (discreet document) text implies observation-intrepretation of books-as-wholes, beginning with book survey • Literary-canonical basis(return to canonizers’ stance) • Contextual basis • Procedural basis

  24. SURVEY OF UNITS-AS-WHOLES:SPECIFIC MATERIALS • GIVE UNIT TITLES (paragraphs, segments, divisions, books) • Brief (2 - 5 words) • Descriptive (vs. interpretiv e) • Distinctive • Associative

  25. Contextual Hermeneutic God Reader - Listener Writer(s) Think Ancient & “Modern” Space - Time Barrier Moves Major Link w. Mind of writer and God Purposeful Writing Complex, Varied cf. Amos, Proverbs, Psalter, Gospels, Philemon Observe (Partial - Indispensable) Written Text Implied Method Priority Writer’s Thoughts [& God’s “Thought’s”!] 1. Discrete Units 2. Form & Genre 3. Structured 4. Canon Intuitive Understanding Immediate, Partial, Culture-conditioned

  26. BOOK SURVEY:LITERARY FORM & GENRE • Literary form and genre(For genre awareness in biblical writers, see:) • Song of praise, Ps 145:1 • Song of Zion, Ps 137:3 • Amos 5:1 Lament, Amos 5:1 • Genesis, toledot / “generations,” stories organized around family development

  27. Contextual Hermeneutic God Reader - Listener Writer(s) Think Ancient & “Modern” Space - Time Barrier Moves Major Link w. Mind of writer and God Purposeful Writing Complex, Varied cf. Amos, Proverbs, Psalter, Gospels, Philemon Observe (Partial - Indispensable) Written Text Implied Method Priority Writer’s Thoughts [& God’s “Thought’s”!] 1. Discrete Units 2. Form & Genre 3. Structured 4. Canon Intuitive Understanding Immediate, Partial, Culture-conditioned

  28. COMMUNICATION MATRIX:STRUCTURED COMMUNICATION • Common property of homo-sapiens • Cross-cultural reality • No “western” imposition • Complexity of source/motive • Intentional-unintentional spectrum • Instruction from experience

  29. METHOD IMPLICATIONS OFSTRUCTURED COMMUNICATION • Observe literary structure • Semantic (logical, primary) • Rhetorical (artistic, secondary)(BSTW2:36-43; MBS:36-63) • Interpret materialas structured • Neither material without structure • Nor structure divorced from material

  30. STRUCTURE:TWO COMPONENTS 1. Major units & sub-units • Consider major shifts in emphasis

  31. STRUCTURE:TWO COMPONENTS • 1. Major units & sub-units • Consider major structural relationships

  32. LITERARY STRUCUTRES? • See slides at end of Note Taking Guide for treatment of each of the major semantic and rhetorical structures.

  33. STRUCTURE:TWO COMPONENTS • 2. Major structural relationships • Semantic (logical, primary) • Rhetorical (artistic, secondary)(BSTW2:36-43; MBS:36-63) • (Note symbiotic tie between identification of literary units and identification of major structural relationships.)

  34. Recurrence Contrast Comparison Climax? Interrogation Particularization Generalization Causation Substantiation Instrumentation Preparation Selection Pivot, Cruciality Concession PRIMARY STRUCTURESSemantic, logical relationships

  35. SECONDARY STRUCTURESRhetorical, artistic relationships • Interchange • Inclusio • Chiasm • Climax? • Intercalation

  36. “LEVELS” OF STRUCTURE Book Level Relationships Between Divisions Division Relationships between Sections Section Relations betw. Segments Segment Rel. betw. Paragraphs betweenClauses Paragraph Level

  37. STRUCTURED COMMUNICATIONOBSERVATION AGENDA S • KEY VERSES / STRATEGIC PASSAGES • Represent major structural relationships -->> • Provide particularly important insight into book/unit as a whole • Provide direction for study • Give focus for preaching/teaching

  38. STRUCTURED COMMUNICATIONOBSERVATION AGENDA S • IDENTIFYING STRATEGIC PASSAGES • One passage representing each major structure • Commended by structural arrangement itself • Directly: summarization, climax, cruciality, generalization/particularization, inclusio • Indirectly: best representative

  39. COMMUNICATION MATRIX:SPACE-TIME BARRIER • Source • Revelation in history• Reality of all communication • Result• Inadequacy of initial “hearing”• Partial, intuitive, culture-bound • Danger• False confidence

  40. SPACE-TIME BARRIER: Method Implications • Need: • Intentional “listening”/understanding(beyond intuitive) • Method: • Questions • Answer on basis of evidence • Goal: • Enter entire “world” of text

  41. II. INTERPRETATIONWhat did the writer mean? • Explanatory Metaphors • DetectiveDrawing warranted conclusions from evidence • Communication ModelAsking questions, drawing conclusions

  42. Contextual Hermeneutic God Reader - Listener Writer(s) Think Space - Time Barrier Major Link w. Mind of writer and God Moves Purposeful Writing Observe Written Text Writer’s Thoughts [& God’s “Thought’s”!] Intuitive Understanding Immediate, Partial, Culture-conditioned

  43. Contextual Hermaneutic Reader - Listener God Writer(s) Think Ancient & “Modern” Space - Time Barrier Moves Major Link w. Mind of writer and God Purposeful Writing Observe Written Text Intuitive Understanding Immediate, Partial, Culture-conditioned Writer’s Thoughts [& God’s “Thought’s”!] Want More Adequate Understanding? Less Culture-Bound? More Complete? ThenMust Inquire of Meaning Ask Key Questions Impl Reason Definition Answer From Evidence

  44. Observations Analysis Consultation (Secondary Research) •Commentaries •Word Study Volumes •Theologies •Encyclopedias •Journal Articles •History of Interpretation Questions-Possibilities Paragraph-Level Detailed Analysis Segment-Level Analysis/Survey Research Book-Level Analysis/Survey (Primary Research) Hermeneutics“Making sense of Biblical Texts” Dependence on the Spirit Prayer Humility I. Historical Interpretation “What the text meant to historical authors/readers” Inductive-Independent Work Interactive Work

  45. INTENTIONAL “LISTENING”i.e., INTERPRETATION • PRIMARY QUESTIONS • Definition • Reason • Implication ALWAYS START HERE!

  46. The Interpretive Pyramid IMPLY? REASON? DEFINITION?

  47. INTENTIONAL “LISTENING”i.e., INTERPRETATION • DEFINITIONAL QUESTIONS Ask for basic meaning • Specific:“What does ______ (word, expression, paragraph) mean?” • General:“What is involved in ________?”

  48. INTENTIONAL “LISTENING”i.e., INTERPRETATION • RATIONAL QUESTIONS Ask for reasons • “Why is / does ________?” • IMPLICATIONAL QUESTIONS Ask about implications & assumptions • “What is implied by _________?”

  49. INTENTIONAL “LISTENING”i.e., INTERPRETATION • IMPLICATIONS -- NOTAPPLICATIONS • What the text assumes • What logically follows from the text Assumptions behind the text Logical consequences from the text

  50. INTENTIONAL “LISTENING”i.e., INTERPRETATION • “Determinants”:* sources of information for anwering interpretive questions • Objective determinants • Subjective determinantscf. “Strategies” above. *Traina. Methodical Bible Study, pp. 135-164; BSTW2, 49-64