Hit the Books! A guide to: Note Taking Learning Styles Textbook Studying Test Taking Strategies Test Anxiety The Center for Academic and Accessibility Resources
This workshop is designed to provide you with effective strategies on: Note taking methods: Finding what works best for you Learning Styles: Visual learner, Kinesthetic learner, Auditory Learner Textbook studying: Making the most of what you read Test Taking : Tips on how to outsmart multiple choice, essay, short answer & true/false tests Test Anxiety: Taking control before and during tests Workshop Overview
Note taking methods Finding what works best for you
Note taking methods The Cornell Method Record-use the note-taking column to “record” the lecture Questions-after class (or within 24 hours), write questions in the left column to help you understand the material better & clarify any questions you may have (think of useful questions that you can use to study with later) Recite-cover the note-taking column and then ask the questions in the left column, answering them as thoroughly as possible Reflect-reflect on the material by asking yourself any additional questions Review-spend at least 10 minutes every week reviewing your notes Outline Form Best used when your professor lectures in a structured, predictable way. You can informally create an outline by using dashes instead of Roman Numerals… Each time a main idea or point is mentioned, start a new section to the outline (I, II, III, etc). Here’s an example… Topic I. First Main Idea A. Major Supporting Fact B. Major Supporting Fact 1. First reason or example 2. Second reason or example a. First Supporting Fact b. Second Supporting Fact
Note Taking Continued… Mind-Mapping or Concept Mapping • Starts from the main idea in the center of the page • Branches out with subtopics • Each subtopic can have many branches of their own • It’s up to you to create the patterns, and make associations • This method creates a visual that will help your brain categorize and store information in your long term memory
Learning Styles Visual learners, Kinesthetic Learners, Auditory Learners
Visual Learners • You learn best when information is presented visually and in a written language format. • In a classroom setting, you benefit from instructors who use the blackboard (or overhead projector) to list the essential points of a lecture, or who provide you with an outline to follow along with during lecture. • You benefit from information obtained from textbooks and class notes. You tend to like to study by yourself in a quiet room. You often see information "in your mind's eye" when you are trying to remember something. • You benefit from instructors who use visual aids such as film, video, maps and charts. • You benefit from information obtained from the pictures and diagrams in textbooks. • When trying to remember something, you can often visualize a picture of it in your mind. • You may have an artistic side that enjoys activities having to do with visual art and design.
Strategies for Visual Learners • “Color coding" • Using highlighter pens - highlight different kinds of information in contrasting colors. • Write out sentences / phrases • Make flashcards of vocabulary words and concepts that need to be memorized. • When learning information presented in diagrams or illustrations, write out explanations for the information. • When a problem involves a sequence of steps, write out in detail how to do each step. • Make yourself visual reminders of information that must be memorized – Flash cards, Post-its, diagrams
The Tactile/ Kinesthetic Learners • You learn best when physically engaged in a "hands on" activity. • In the classroom, you benefit from a lab setting where you can manipulate materials to learn new information. • You learn best when you can be physically active in the learning environment. • You benefit from instructors who encourage in-class demonstrations, "hands on" student learning experiences, and field work outside the classroom.
Strategies for Kinesthetic Learners • Sit near the front of the room and take notes throughout the class period. Don’t worry about taking “perfect” notes • When studying, walk back and forth with textbook, notes, or flashcards in hand and read the information out loud. • To learn a sequence of steps, make 3'x 5' flashcards for each step. Arrange the cards on a table top to represent the correct sequence. Limit the amount of information per card to aid recall. Practice putting the cards in order until the sequence becomes automatic. • When reviewing new information, copy key points onto large writing surface. Use graphics, tables, and spreadsheets to further organize material that must be learned. • Listen to audio tapes on a Walkman tape player while exercising. Make your own tapes containing important course information.
Auditory Learners • You learn best when information is presented auditory in an oral language format. • In a classroom setting, you benefit from listening to lecture and participating in group discussions. • You also benefit from obtaining information from audio tape. • When trying to remember something, you can often "hear" the way someone told you the information, or the way you previously repeated it out loud. • You learn best when interacting with others in a listening/speaking exchange .
Strategies for Auditory Learners • Join a study group to assist you in learning course material • When studying by yourself, talk out loud to aid recall. • Tape record your lectures. • Use audio tapes • State the problem in your own words. • To learn a sequence of steps, write them out in sentence form and read them out loud.
Textbook studying making the most of what you read
Textbook Studying Tips • Don’t spend more than an hour at a time on one subject • Keep alert by taking rest breaks • Study similar subjects at separate times • Avoid studying during your sleepy times • Study at the most productive time for your course • Use SQ3R Reading Method
The SQ3R Reading Method Survey Question Read Recall Review
SURVEY • Skim title, headings, and subheadings • Captions under pictures, charts, graphs or maps • Review questions or teacher-made study guides • Introductory and concluding paragraphs • Summary
QUESTION • Turn the title, headings, and/or subheadings into questions • Read questions at the end of the chapters or after each subheading; • Ask yourself, "What did my instructor say about this chapter or subject when it was assigned?" • Ask yourself, "What do I already know about this subject?"
READ • Look for answers to the questions you first raised • Answer questions at the beginning or end of chapters or study guides • Reread captions under pictures, graphs, etc. • Note all the underlined, italicized, bold printed words or phrases • Study graphic aids • Reduce your speed for difficult passages • Stop and reread parts which are not clear • Read only a section at a time and recite after each section
RECITE, RECITE, RECITE • Orally ask yourself questions about what you have just read and/or summarize, in your own words, what you read • Take notes from the text but write the information in your own words • Underline/highlight important points you've just read • Use the method of recitation which best suits your particular learning style but remember, the more senses you use the more likely you are to remember what you read • TRIPLE STRENGTH LEARNING: Seeing, saying, hearing • QUADRUPLE STRENGTH LEARNING: Seeing , saying , hearing, writing!!!
REVIEW • After you have read and recited the entire chapter, write questions for those points you have highlighted/underlined in the margins. • Page through the text and/or your notebook to re-acquaint yourself with the important points. • Orally recite or write the answers from memory. Make "flash cards" for those questions which give you difficulty. • Develop mnemonic devices for material which need to be memorized. • BECAUSE-Big Elephants Can Always Understand Small Elephants • The order of planets in average distance from the Sun:(Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto)My Very Easy Method: Just Set Up Nine Planets. • Alternate between your flash cards and notes and test yourself (orally or in writing) on the questions you formulated.
Did you know? • That within 24 hours, at least 70% of the information we’ve encountered is lost… • That we tend to retain only 20% what we hear in a lecture and write in our notes… • That if we do an active review of our notes within 24 hours utilizing a method such as the Cornell Method, or of our reading using something like the SQ3R System, we raise that retention level to at least 60%...
Test Taking Strategies Tips on how to outsmart multiple choice, essay, short answer & true/false tests
Test Taking Multiple Choice Read the question carefully Rephrase the question Eliminate choices Go from easy to difficult Watch for combinations Look at sentence structure Essays Outline Budget your writing time Read the question carefully Organize the material Write concisely and correctly Write neatly Focus on the main points & supporting information Answer completely Use all of the available time
Test Taking Continued Fill in the Blank Watch for clues Count the number of blanks Watch for the length of the blank Answer the questions you know first Answer all of the questions Short Answer Write clear, logical and brief answers. When you skip a short essay question because it stumps you, look for cues in the rest of the test that may help you go back and answer it later. True/False Listen and read carefully Pay attention to details Watch for qualifiers Watch for faulty cause and effect
Test Anxiety taking control before and during tests
Test Anxiety Symptoms of Test Anxiety Physical-nausea, excessive perspiration, muscle tension, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate Emotional-any excessive feeling like disappointment, anger, helplessness Behavioral-fidgeting, avoidance, substance abuse Cognitive-“going blank,” difficulty concentrating, knowing the answers AFTER you turn in the test, negative self talk, difficulty organizing your thoughts, giving up Resources That Can … Websites: University of Missouri-Rolla Counseling Center: http://campus.umr.edu/counsel/selfhelp/vpl/testanxiety.htm Campus Blues: http://www.campusblues.com/test.asp The UIUC Counseling Center: http://www.couns.uiuc.edu/Brochures/testanx.htm Study Guides and Strategies Web site: http://www.studygs.net/tstprp8.htm The CLU Counseling Center Call 493-3225 to make an appointment or stop by the Matson House or visit them on the website at www.callutheran.edu/counseling
Tackling Test Anxiety Before the Test: • Develop a study group • Spread review over several days—no cramming • Eat healthy & exercise • Think positive-tell yourself that you can do it • Take a practice test under exam-like conditions • Get to class early During the Test: -Don’t panic if you can’t remember something right away—skip to questions that you know -Tense and relax your jaw, then your shoulders, then your feet—then take several deep breaths with your eyes closed (practice any relaxation techniques before the test too) -Do something different—go to the restroom if you can, sharpen your pencil, ask the professor a question, etc. -Picture yourself somewhere else….like on the shore of a calm ocean in the evening… After the Test: -Evaluate what methods worked best for you -Evaluate your professor’s test style in relation to your notes and the book -Sharpen your skills for next time -Never give up and ask for help if you need it!!!