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ISLAM: Submission to the Will of Allah By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
The Judeo-Christian Foundations of Islam
IslamAn Abrahamic Religion • Muslims are strict monotheists. • They believe in the Judeo- Christian God, which they callAllah. • Muslims believe that the Torah and the Bible, like the Qur’an, is the word of God. Peoples of the Book
Abraham’s Genealogy HAGAR ABRAHAM SARAH Ishmael Isaac 12 Arabian Tribes Jacob Esau 12 Tribes of Israel
The Prophetic Tradition Adam Noah Abraham Moses Jesus Muhammad
The Qur'an: God's Last Revelation
The Origins of the Qur’an • Muhammad received his first revelation from the angel Gabriel in the Cave of Hira in 610. • 622 Hijrah Muhammed fled Mecca for Medina.* The beginning of the Muslim calendar (1 A.H.) • Muhammad’s revelations were compiled into the Qur’an after his death.
The Qur’an • Muslims believe it contains the word of God. • 114 suras (chapters). • In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful. • Written in Arabic.
The Five Pillars of Islam
1. The Shahada • The testimony. • The declaration of faith: There is no god worthy of worship except God, andMuhammad is HisMessenger [or Prophet]. 1
2. The Salat • The mandatory prayers performed 5 times a day:* dawn* noon* late afternoon * sunset * before going to bed • Wash before praying. • Face Mecca and use a prayer rug. 2
2. The Salat • The call to prayer by themuezzin in the minaret. • Example of one or two • Pray in the mosque on Friday. 2
3. The Zakat • Almsgiving (charitable donations). • Muslims believe that all things belong to God. • Zakat means both “purification” and “growth.” • About 2.5% of your income. 3
4. The Sawm • Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan. • Considered a method of self- purification. • No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan. 4
Eid Mubarak End of the Ramadan holiday.
5. The Hajj • The pilgrimage to Mecca. • Must be done at least once in a Muslim’s lifetime. • 2-3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage every year. 5
5. The Hajj • Those who complete the pilgrimage can add the titlehajji to their name. 5
The Dar al-Islam The Worldof Islam 1 2 3 4 5
What are the five pillars of Islam? What do “Muslim” and “Islam” mean? In what city did Muhammad die? Ascend to heaven? To what city did Muhammad leave on the Hijrah? What is the Qur’an? Pop-Quiz
The Mosque • The Muslim place of worship.
The Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem Mount Moriah Rockwhere Muhammad ascended into heaven.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-QTkC-TTzZc http://www.videospider.tv/Videos/Detail/857371539.aspx Muezzin
Sunni Text of the adhan: God is The Greatest; I bear witness that there is no lord except God; I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of God; Make haste towards prayer; Make haste towards welfare; God is greatest; There is no lord except God Adhan
Other Islamic Religious Practices • Follow Muhammad’s example: The Sunna; and the Hadith, Muhammad’s collected sayings • Polygamy is allowed. • No alcohol or pork. • No gambling. • Sharia body of Islamic law to regulate daily living. • Three holiest cities in Islam:* Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem.
Essential Question: Why was Islam able to spread so quickly and convert so many to the new religion?
The Spread of Islam • Easy to learn and practice. • No priesthood (Ulama - those with knowledge; Imam - one who is front) • Teaches equality and tolerance. • Non-Muslims, who were “Peoples of the Book,” were allowed religious freedom, but paid additional taxes. • Easily “portable” nomads & trade routes. • Jihad(“struggle”) against pagans and other non-believers.
Muhammad’s successors or deputies, called caliphs, continued teaching the message of Islam. “Rightly Guided Caliphs” were elected: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali The Caliphate that followed Ali was hereditary The caliphs were able to expand the Muslim Empire from the Atlantic ocean to the Indus Valley The early Caliphs took advantage of the weakness of the Persian and Byzantine empires The Qur’an prohibits force conversion Islamic leaders allowed Christians and Jews to practice their beliefs but they could not spread their beliefs. The Spread of Islam
Civil war erupted after the death of Hussein Ibn Ali in Karbala, 680 CE. With the death, the process of electing Caliphs ended The new leadership moved the capital to Damascus (Syria) to make expansion easier - the Ummayad Dynasty In addition to the move the new leaders moved away from the simple life of the caliphs and surrounded themselves with luxury Split Within Islam
Sunni Meaning “followers of Muhammad’s example” Followed the new leadership A majority of the people accepted the new rulers, to maintain peace Shi’a / Sunni Split • Shi’a - Meaning “party” of Ali (Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law) - Resisted the new leaderships rule. - Believed the Caliph needed to be a relative of the prophet Muhammad - Another group, the Sufi, pursued a life of poverty in response to the luxury of the Sunni leadership.
Under the leadership of various leaders the Muslims spread as far north as France and south into southern Africa. A large Muslim settlement was established by the Berbers in Spain. Lead by Jabal Tariq He was so revered they named the Rock of Gibraltar after him. Corodoba, in Spain became a center for the spread of Islam in Europe 70 libraries, 700 mosques, 27 free schools Population of 500,000 All religions were welcome in Corodoba Spread of Islam to Three Continents
Throughout the Muslim Empire urban centers flourished Ummayad Caliphate: capital at Damascus (661-750 CE) Abbasid Caliphate: capital at Baghdad (750-1258) Ummayad Dynasty in Spain, followed the Berbers (North African Muslims) who fought at the Battle of Tours in 732 and established the Al-Andalus There were four social classes The upper class - Muslims by birth Second class - converts to Islam (paid higher taxes) Third class - “The Protected People” - Jews and Christians, also Zoroastrians - higher taxes than 2nd class The Lowest Class - Slaves, all non-muslim, many were household workers or soldiers. Muslim Society
The Role of Women The Qur’an states that men will manage a women’s affair An obedient women is a righteous women Muslim women had more rights than European women. Responsibilities varied based on the income of the husbands. Women raised the children In early Muslim society women participated in religious activities and were encouraged to get an education Muslim Society, cont.
Turks who left central Asia and set up a Muslim empire from Anatolia to the Punjab between 11th and 14th centuries Adopted Persian culture, eventually captured the Abbasid and Byzantine empires Principle enemy of Crusaders in the 11th-15th centuries Set up the Ottoman Empire centered in Anatolia, the Holy Lands, Arabia, North Africa, and Persia - lasted until mid-15th century Seljuk Turks
Many advances in medicine, mathematics, and astronomy are credited to the Muslim world Understanding of smallpox and measles Proper location for hospitals Muslims scholars charted stars, comets, and planets Many artists began the art of calligraphy, due to the banning of drawing images Advances in Art and Science
Islam comes from the Arabic word for “Peace” Jihad can be interpreted many ways. Holy War, struggle against infidels (un-believers) Concept that includes “struggle against evil inclinations against oneself, struggle to improve the quality of life in society, struggle in the battle for self-defense or fighting against tyranny and oppression,” (Islam: Opposing Viewpoints, p 14) “Whoever killed a human being, except as a punishment for murder or villainy in the land, shall be looked upon as though he had killed all mankind,” (Islam: Opposing Viewpoints, p 14). Islam: the peaceful religion