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A Cartography of Strategic Communications . Philip M Taylor Professor of International Communications University of Leeds. UNCERTAIN FUTURE. UNCERTAIN FUTURE. The 21st CENTURY GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT. POPULATION GROWTH + RESOURCE SCARCITY = War over Food, Water, Fish. Changing ALLIANCES:

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a cartography of strategic communications

A Cartography of Strategic Communications

Philip M Taylor

Professor of International Communications

University of Leeds

slide2

UNCERTAIN

FUTURE

UNCERTAIN

FUTURE

The 21st CENTURY GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT

POPULATION GROWTH +

RESOURCE SCARCITY =

War over Food, Water, Fish

Changing ALLIANCES:

IMPACT OF THE EURO

ECO-ASIA

TERRORISM

Virtual States

Global Warming +/

Ecological disaster +

Creeping Deserts =

Sub-National Groups:

Russian Mafia, FARC,

INFORMATION

WARFARE

WEAPONS OF

MASS DESTRUCTION

ETHNO-

Religious

PAN-NATIONALISM

‘CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS’

More GNP =

More Defense Spending

IMPACT OF

TECHNOLOGY

GLOBAL ECONOMICINTERDEPENDENCE

DISEASE

(AIDS PANDEMIC

MALARIA, EBOLA)

ASYMMETRIC

WARFARE

the 21 st century global info sphere
The 21st century Global Info-sphere

New regional

players

‘citizen journalists’/

Digital eye-witnesses

24/7 rolling news

The Internet

Blogs, twitter

Web 2.0

slide4

Making ‘order’ out of apparent ‘chaos’..

UNCERTAIN

FUTURE

UNCERTAIN

FUTURE

TERRORISM

N GROWTH +

RESOURCE SCARCITY =

War over Food, Water, Fish

Changing ALLIANCES:

IMPACT OF THE EURO

ECO-ASIA

Virtual States

Global Warming +/

Ecological disaster +

Creeping Deserts =

New regional

players

Sub-National Groups:

Russian Mafia, FARC,

24/7 rolling news

‘citizen journalists’/

Digital eye-witnesses

INFORMATION

WARFARE

WEAPONS OF

MASS DESTRUCTION

ETHNO-

Religious

PAN-NATIONALISM

‘CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS’

More GNP =

More Defense Spending

IMPACT OF

TECHNOLOGY

The Internet

GLOBAL ECONOMICINTERDEPENDENCE

Blogs, twitter

DISEASE

(AIDS PANDEMIC

MALARIA, EBOLA)

ASYMMETRIC

WARFARE

Web 2.0

is the job of strategic communications
…is the job of Strategic Communications
  • It is a very NOISY info-sphere
  • Lots of competing voices are shouting for attention
  • Those voices are fast, disparate, difficult to regulate/control, sometimes anarchic (e.g. viruses, Trojans, worms) sometimes terroristic
  • They have a potential global reach
  • They are now interactive (=Web 2.0)
  • They challenge the traditional, dominant, top-down, hegemonic, governmental ‘spokespeople’
governments have to compete too
Governments have to compete too
  • Not with a whisper but with a clear voice that can and will be heard…
  • …because it is credible, reliable, consistent, honest and truthful
  • Silence is not an option; the resultant info-vaccuum will be filled with adversary ‘chatter’ (including misinformation and disinformation)
  • Direct to Target Audiences because democratic free media are ‘unreliable’ as mediators of what is needed to be said
communication is
Communication is….
  • From the Latin word ‘communicare’ = to share
  • … to the 21st century what gas and oil were to the 20th
  • … the fuel that drives political, economic, social, cultural
  • and military engines
  • … networking and to defeat a network, you need a network
  • … changing rapidly, especially amongst young people
  • … increasingly conducted in virtual environments
strategic communication the new us definition
Strategic Communication – the new US definition
  • ‘The coordination of Statecraft, Public Affairs, Public Diplomacy, [Military] Information Operationsand other activities, reinforced by political, economic and military actions, in a synchronized and coordinated manner.’

(National Security Council definition of Strategic Communication, February 2005, approved by Condoleezza Rice before her transition to the State Department.)

slide9

STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY

INFORMATION

OPERATIONS

PUBLIC

AFFAIRS

Military/MoD: IO has replaced IW in the lexicon since mid 1990s

Government:

political/strategic

relationship with

media

Foreign Office/

State Department

(USIA closed 1999)

slide10

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY DEFINTION

‘Public Diplomacy – the open exchange of ideas and information – is an inherent characteristic of democratic societies. Its global mission is central to … foreign policy. And it remains indispensable to … [national] interests, ideals and leadership role in the world’.

(US Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy, 1991 Report).

slide11

SOFT POWER

‘Soft power …is the ability to get desired outcomes because others want what you want. It is the ability to achieve goals through attraction rather than coercion. It works by convincing others to follow or getting them to agree to norms and institutions that produce the desired behaviour.

Soft power can rest on the appeal of one's ideas or culture … and … depends largely on the persuasiveness of the free information that an actor seeks to transmit. If a state can [do this] it may not need to expend as many costly traditional economic or military resources.’ (Keohane & Nye)

slide12

STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY

INFORMATION

OPERATIONS

PUBLIC

AFFAIRS

CULTURAL

DIPLOMACY

INTERNATIONAL

BROADCASTING

slide13

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY

‘Soft Power’

CULTURALDIPLOMACY

INTERNATIONAL

BROADCASTING

Long-term;

Elites are main target audience

Short-term;

Mass Communication

(radio, TV, internet)

  • Reciprocal (two-way)
  • Mutual
  • Development of mutual
  • trust and understanding
  • Talking AND Listening
  • ‘To know us is to love us’
  • One-way (point-to-multipoint)
  • Counter-propaganda with
  • ‘news’ and ‘facts’
  • Needs to be fast (but not
  • ‘real-time’) and CREDIBLE
  • ‘Truth is the best propaganda’
slide14

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY

‘Soft Power’

CULTURALDIPLOMACY

INTERNATIONAL

BROADCASTING

Long-term;

Education

Short-term;

News & Views

  • British Council
  • Alliance Française
  • Dante Alighieri Society
  • Goethe Institute
  • Carnegie Foundation
  • Confucius Institute
  • BBC World Service
  • Radio France International
  • RAI International
  • Deutsche Welle
  • Voice of America
  • China Radio International
slide15

STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY

INFORMATION

OPERATIONS

PUBLIC

AFFAIRS

information operations definition uk jwp 3 80
Information Operations definition - UK JWP 3-80
  • ‘Co-ordinated actions undertaken to influence an adversary or potential adversary in support of political and military objectives by undermining his will, cohesion and decision making ability, through affecting his information, information based processes and systems while protecting one’s own decision-makers and decision-making processes’
slide17

STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY

INFORMATION

OPERATIONS

PUBLIC

AFFAIRS

Computer Network Operations

Human

Factors

PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS (PSYOPS)

CIVIL-MILITARY CO-OPERATION (CIMIC)

MEDIA

INFORMATION ASSURANCE

OPERATIONAL SECURITY

ELECTRONIC WARFARE

DECEPTION

SIGINT

HUMINT

us dod jp 3 13 2006
US DoD JP 3-13 2006
  • The integrated employment of electronic warfare (EW), computer network operations (CNO), psychological operations (PSYOP), military deception (MILDEC), and operations security (OPSEC), in concert with specified supporting and related capabilities, to influence, disrupt, corrupt, or usurp adversarial human and automated decision making while protecting our own.
slide19

INFORMATION OPERATIONS

‘Soft information support to hard power’

HUMAN FACTORS

‘HUMINT’

COMPUTER NETWORK

OPERATIONS

‘SIGINT’

  • CIMIC
  • DECEPTION
  • PSYOPS
  • ---------------------------
  • PUBLIC AFFAIRS
  • COMPUTER NETWORK
  • ATTACK
  • COMPUTER NETWORK
  • DEFENCE
  • ELECTRONIC WARFARE
  • OPSEC
slide20
NATO Definition of Psychological Operations (PSYOPS):

‘Planned psychological activities using methods of communications and other means directed to approved audiences in order to influence perceptions, attitudes and behaviour, affecting the achievement of political and military objectives’

slide21

HUMAN FACTORS

The Influence (People) Piece in IO

  • PUBLIC AFFAIRS
  • Press
  • Radio & TV
  • Internet
  • PSYOPS
  • White
  • Grey
  • Black

Leaflets, TV, Radio,

Posters, websites,

Loudspeakers etc

Press briefings &

Conferences, releases,

Off-the record?

- Talks directly to TA

- Relationship to CIMIC

Talks to TA via Media

(reliability?)

slide22

IO HUMAN FACTORS &

THE ‘WAR’ ON TERROR

WHITE = AN

HONEST SOURCE

GREY =

IDENTIFIES

NO SOURCE

  • PUBLIC AFFAIRS
  • Press
  • Radio & TV
  • Internet
  • PSYOPS
  • White
  • Grey
  • Black

BLACK – PRETENDS

TO BE A DIFFERENT

SOURCE

TRUTHFUL, ATTRIBUTABLE AND ‘OFF THE RECORD’

‘ATTRIBUTABLE’ &

‘NON-ATTRIBUTAL’

slide23

STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY

INFORMATION

OPERATIONS

PUBLIC

AFFAIRS

CULTURAL

DIPLOMACY

INTERNATIONAL

BROADCASTING

HUMAN

FACTORS

CNO

PSYOPS

CIMIC

MEDIA

INFO ASSURANCE

OPSEC/EW

DECEPTION

slide24

US INTERNATIONAL BROADCASTING ‘FAMILY’

VOICE OF AMERICA

Broadcasting Board of Governors

RADIO FREE EUROPE

RADIO FREE ASIA (1996)

Targets China, North Korea,

Burma, Vietnam etc

RADIO & TV MARTI

Cuba

RADIO SAWA & AL HURRA TV

‘Together’ & ‘The Free One’

Middle East

RADIO FARDA (2002)

‘Tomorrow’

Iran

slide25

CUBA NEWS The Miami Herald

By Nancy San Martin, Fri Jun. 24, 2005.

Martí a priority, state official says

The U.S. military aircraft broadcasting

TV and Radio Martí's signals to Cuba

will not be diverted to Iraq, at least

until a replacement plane is bought

and equipped, a senior State Department

official said Thursday.

''The president has made the decision that we would do what we could to break through the information blockade imposed by the Castro regime,'' the official said after El Nuevo Herald and The Herald reported concerns raised by Miami Republican Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen that the Pentagon's C-130 Commando Solo plane could be sent to the Middle East.

''As far as we know . . . until the permanent platform is available, the C-130 is flying,'' said the official, who spoke on condition of anonymity because of sensitivity surrounding the issue.

And you thought the Cold War

had ended !!!

Commando Solo

If you are at the receiving end of these broadcasts, it looks like

PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE

slide26

STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY

INFORMATION

OPERATIONS

PUBLIC

AFFAIRS

CULTURAL

DIPLOMACY

INTERNATIONAL

BROADCASTING

HUMAN

FACTORS

CNO

PSYOPS

CIMIC

MEDIA

INFO ASSURANCE

OPSEC/EW

DECEPTION

cultural diplomacy or cultural imperialism
Cultural Diplomacy or ‘Cultural Imperialism’?
  • Free media products give negative impressions of a society (news media interested in ‘bad news’; Hollywood interested in sex, drugs and rock ‘n roll’)
  • Governmental CD & SC tries to correct this with ‘good news’ and cultural achievements
  • If you are on the receiving end, CD CAN look like Cultural Imperialism, Coca-colonialism, McDomination of another form of psychological war of ideas and values
  • It therefore HAS to be TWO-WAY: mutual and reciprocal
slide29

STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY

INFORMATION

OPERATIONS

PUBLIC

AFFAIRS

DOMESTIC

FOREIGN

slide30

Public Affairs – US Definition

“Those public information and community relations activities directed toward the domestic general public by various elements of the USG, as well as those activities directed to foreign publics, including the media, by official U.S. spokesmen abroad.”

slide31

STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY

INFORMATION

OPERATIONS

PUBLIC

AFFAIRS

DOMESTIC

FOREIGN

CULTURAL

DIPLOMACY

INTERNATIONAL

BROADCASTING

HUMAN

FACTORS

CNO

Office of Strategic Influence (OSI)

Office of Special Plans (OSP)

PSYOPS

CIMIC

MEDIA

INFO ASSURANCE

OPSEC/EW

DECEPTION

IMPACT = UNDERMINED CREDIBILITY OF ALL THE OTHER PILLARS

are these pillars appropriate
Are these pillars appropriate?

STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS

IS THIS REALLY ME?

PD IO PA

legacy of the cold war
Legacy of the Cold War
  • They become bureaucratic stovepipes, slow and reactive
  • They cause ‘turf wars’
  • They were designed to win an ideological battle against communism as a political system
  • They were built before the age of the internet and Al Qaida as an ‘idea’
is there a better solution
Is there a better solution?
  • A Dedicated Department/Ministry of Strategic Communication?
  • Answerable to President/Prime Minister’s Office – it is STRATEGIC
  • Close liaison with all other ministries
  • A long-term Grand (Information) Strategy is required
influencing attitudes
Influencing Attitudes

DEPARTMENT OF STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS

Old & New

Media

International Broadcasting

Public Diplomacy

Public Affairs

Influence Operations

why is this necessary
Why is this necessary?
  • To bring order to the chaos generated by terrorism and AQ in internet-age asymmetric information warfare
  • Terrorists know that their activities are 10% violence and 90% propaganda
  • The western (US) response to 9/11 has been 90% violence (war) and 10% strategic communication
  • NATO countries still tend to regard ‘information’ as a support weapon or tool
  • For AQ, it is THE CENTRAL weapon and tool
obama vs osama
Obama vs. Osama?
  • Iraq, Afghanistan and the ‘war’ on terror have made ‘winning’ the information war harder and longer
  • ‘Terror’ cannot be defeated with tanks, planes, armies, missiles and ships – in fact it makes it worse (e.g. Palestine)
  • Guantanamo, Abu Ghraib and a whole host of SC ‘own-goals’ have undermined the credibility of the west as a ‘force for good in the world’ (global polls reflect massive anti-Americanism, anti-western sentiment)
western information own goals
Western information ‘own goals’
  • The label of ‘war’ empowers terrorists with the status of ‘warriors’
  • ‘Crusade’, ‘Infinite Justice’ and numerous other semantic and cultural insensitivities (Danish Cartoons, Saudi female drivers, Sudanese Teddy Bear names, Afghan soccer balls)
  • In themselves, not serious but in the long-term – and fixed on the internet – they provide adversaries with ‘proof’ of a clash of civilisations
aq s sc advantages
AQ’s SC advantages
  • Doesn’t need to ‘play by the same rules’ (e.g. lies, Katrina) and exploits openness of democratic systems
  • Has a vision of what victory looks like (Caliphate) but draws on the past (final battle of a 1000 year crusade against the infidel)
  • AQ’s kinetic acts are designed to win political information effects, not winning militarily
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Intelligence Services and police are the most effective tools to defeat terrorists WHO ARE CRIMINALS
  • To fight an idea, you need to wage an INFORMATION WAR at the tactical, operational and STRATEGIC (i.e. POLITICAL) levels
  • Restoration of western credibility is possible – but you need a Grand Strategy
slide41

Where to wage ‘information war’ in the real world?

TARGETED

INFORMATION

LOCATION

ISLAMIC & NON-

ISLAMIC WORLD

STRATEGIC

(GLOBAL)

STRATEGIC

COMMUNICATIONS

PUBLIC

DIPLOMACY

OPERATIONAL

(REGIONAL)

MIDDLE EAST

INFORMATION

OPERATIONS/

PSYCHOLOGICAL

OPERATIONS

TACTICAL

(THEATRE OF

OPERATIONS)

IRAQ

AFGHANISTAN

slide42

Where to wage ‘information war’ in the virtual world?

Websites

Second life

Facebook/BEBO

Blogs

Chat-rooms

Email

podcasts

Servers

YouTube

On-line games

Internet-linked Wii

Internet cell phones

All tactical

information

has strategic

potential &

vice versa

Info-bombers,

Hackers, bloggers

Broadband

revolution increases

speed of downloads/

uploads

Anonymity/

disguise of

Users &

Locations

Users aged 13-35:

The key target

audience for

terrorist recruiters

‘To fight a network

You need a network’