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Nature of Cartography

Nature of Cartography

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Nature of Cartography

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  1. Nature of Cartography

  2. Nature of Cartography • Forms of representation • Need for maps • Basic characteristics of maps • Purposes maps serve • Categories of maps • Emphasis on cartographic representation • The scope of cartography Nature of Cartography

  3. Forms of Representation • Literacy - the use of written language • Articulacy - the use of spoken language • Numeracy - mathematics: a way of symbolisation • Graphicacy - the use of graphics • "A picture is worth of thousands of words" Nature of Cartography

  4. Hang SengIndex Nature of Cartography

  5. HSI Chart Nature of Cartography

  6. HSI: Analytical Chart (1) Nature of Cartography

  7. HSI: Analytical Chart (2) Nature of Cartography

  8. Spatial Imagery • Map - the graphic representation of the geographical setting. • Cartography is the making and study of maps in all their aspects. • Cartography is an efficient way of manipulating, analysing and expressing ideas, forms and relationships that occur in two- and three-dimensional space. Nature of Cartography

  9. Need for Maps • Reducing the spatial characteristics of a large area and putting it in map form to make it observable. • A map is carefully designed instrument for recording, calculating, displaying, analysing and understanding the interrelation of things. • Its most fundamental function is to bring the things into view. Nature of Cartography

  10. Basic Characteristics of Maps • Locations in two-dimensional space • Attributes - qualities or magnitudes • Examples: • Relationships among locations, e.g. Distance • Relationships among various attributes at one location, e.g. Temperature, rainfall and soil • Relationships among the locations of the attributes of a given distribution, e.g. Rainfall • Relationships among the locations of derived or combined attributes of given distributions, e.g. Relation of GDP and population Nature of Cartography

  11. Basic Characteristics of Maps (Cont.) • All geographical maps are reductions. • Scale. • All maps involve geometrical transformations. • Map projection. • All maps are abstractions of reality. • All maps use signs to stand for elements of reality. • Symbolism. Nature of Cartography

  12. Purposes Maps Serve • Store geographical information. • Serve mobility and navigation needs. • Analytical purposes, e.g. Measuring and computing. • Summarise statistical data to assist forecasting and spotting trends. • Visualise invisible. • Stimulate spatial thinking. Nature of Cartography

  13. Categories of Maps • Classed by scale • Small-scale map • Large-scale map • Classed by function • General reference maps • Thematic maps • Charts • Classed by subject matter Nature of Cartography

  14. Emphasis on Cartographic Representation • The principal task of cartography is to communicate environmental information. • The emphasis on cartographic representation is map effectiveness in thought and communication. • This is best achieved by treating the making and using of maps equally. Nature of Cartography

  15. The Theme of Map Effectiveness Simplification Symbolisation Analysis MapEffectiveness MapMaking MapUse Selection Interpretation Classification Exaggeration Reading Nature of Cartography

  16. Information Transformation SelectionClassificationSimplificationExaggerationSymbolisation CensusGround surveyRemote sensingCompilation ReadingAnalysisInterpretation GeographicalEnvironment RecognisedGeographicalInformation MAP MapImage Transform 1 Transform 2 Transform 3 Nature of Cartography

  17. The Scope of Cartography Map Maker Data Map Map User Nature of Cartography

  18. Processes in Cartography • Collecting and selecting the data for mapping • Manipulating and generalising the data, designing and constructing the map • Reading or view the map • Responding to or interpreting the information Nature of Cartography

  19. A Cartographer Must... • Be familiar with all mapping activities (geodesy, surveying, photogrammetry, remote sensing and GIS); and • Know a lot about human thought and communication (cognitive science) and the disciplines associated with the environmental features being mapped. Nature of Cartography

  20. Geographers Are the Primary Users of Maps CognitiveSciences EnvironmentalSciences MappingSciences MAP Nature of Cartography