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Chapter 1 Section 2 Mesopotamian Civilization. Vocabulary civilization irrigation city-state artisan cuneiform scribe empire. Mesopotamia’s Civilization. Over thousands of year, early farming villages turned into ______________. Civilizations —___________________________________

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chapter 1 section 2 mesopotamian civilization

Chapter 1 Section 2Mesopotamian Civilization

Vocabulary

civilization irrigation city-state

artisan cuneiform scribe

empire

mesopotamia s civilization
Mesopotamia’s Civilization
  • Over thousands of year, early farming villages turned into ______________.
      • Civilizations—___________________________________

_____________________________________________.

  • Rivers were important b/c of 2 main things.
    • _____________________________________.
    • _____________________________________.
  • People formed ______________ to make plans and decisions for the common good.
      • Took charge of food supplies & building projects.
      • Made laws and assembled armies.
      • Developed religion, the arts, ways of writing, and calendars.
rise of sumer
Rise of Sumer
  • Earliest civilization formed in today’s southern Iraq between ________ and ___________ rivers.
  • Area was called ____________________.
      • Mesopotamia is Greek for “the land between the rivers.”
      • Extended from Mediterranean Sea to Persian Gulf.
  • Had a hot, dry climate, but in spring, rivers flooded.
      • Left behind rich soil for farming.
      • Floods were unpredictable, so farmers controlled rivers w/dams and channels.
      • Also used rivers to _________________ their crops.
      • Irrigation—_____________________________________.
  • By 3000 B.C. cities had formed in southern Mesopotamia in region known as ______________.
city states
City-States
  • Sumerian cities were _____________.
      • City-state—_____________________________________

______________________________________.

    • Sumerian cities often fought. To protect themselves, they built walls around them.
  • Sumerians believed in many _____.
      • Each god thought to have power over natural force.
  • Built grand temple called ____________ to honor the gods.
  • Most Sumerians were farmers.
sumerians skilled people
Sumerians & Skilled People
  • Others were __________.
      • Artisans—_______________________________________.
        • Others were merchants or traders.
  • Sumerians divided into 3 Social Classes:
      • _______________--kings, priests, & govt. officials.
      • _______________--artisans, farmers, merchants, & fishers.
      • _______________--enslaved people who worked on farms.
  • Mesopotamia called “___________________.”
      • Called this b/c of influence Sumerians had on other peoples.
  • Writing was very important to keep records & pass on ideas.
      • Sumerians developed writing system called _________________.
      • Few people learned to write—they were called _______________.
a skilled people sargon hammurabi
A Skilled People/Sargon & Hammurabi
  • Sumerians produced oldest known story—the ________________.
  • Also invented wagon wheel, sailboat, & plow.
  • Developed mathematical ideas:
      • Geometry, number system based on 60 (60 minute hour & 60 second minute), and 12-month calendar.
  • Conflicts weakened Sumer’s city-states.
  • _________, king of Akkadians, conquered Mesopotamia and set up world’s first _________.
      • Empire—_______________________________________.
    • After Sargon, different group of people became powerful & built city of _____________ on Euphrates River.
hammurabi
Hammurabi
  • Babylonian king, ___________, conquered lands north & south of Babylon—created empire.
  • Best known for ___________________.
    • Code of Hammurabi was collection of laws that covered:
      • Crimes
      • Farming
      • Business activities
      • Marriage
      • Family
  • Many punishments were cruel, but was important step in development of fair justice system.