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Chapter 13 Genetic Engineering. Section 13-4 Applications of Genetic Engineering. Transgenic Organisms. The Genetic Principles Are Universal For All Life Forms: Based On DNA All DNA Uses The Same Base Sequences Adenine Thymine Guanine Cyctosine Genes Can Be Transferred Between Species

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chapter 13 genetic engineering

Chapter 13Genetic Engineering

Section 13-4

Applications of Genetic Engineering

transgenic organisms
Transgenic Organisms
  • The Genetic Principles Are Universal For All Life Forms:
    • Based On DNA
    • All DNA Uses The Same Base Sequences
      • Adenine
      • Thymine
      • Guanine
      • Cyctosine
    • Genes Can Be Transferred Between Species
      • Transgenic Organisms
transgenic organisms3
Transgenic Organisms

With The Newly Developed Technologies, Genes Can Be Transferred Between Species.

An Organism Which Has Received The Gene of Another species is called a:

Transgenic Organism

transgenic organisms4
Transgenic Organisms

Key Concept:

Genetic Engineering Has Spurred The Growth Of Biotechnology, A New Industry That Is Changing The Way We Interact With The Living World

transgenic microorganisms
Transgenic Microorganisms
  • Reproduce Rapidly
  • Easy To Grow
  • Used To Produce Human
    • Insulin
    • Growth Hormone
    • Clotting Factors
transgenic animals
Transgenic Animals
  • Mice with Human Immune Cells To Study Effects Of Disease
  • Food Animals with Extra Genes For Growth Hormone So The Grow Faster
    • Cows
    • Fish
  • Pigs for Organ Transplants
transgenic animals7
Transgenic Animals
  • Chickens Resistant To Salmonella & Shigella
  • Animals That Produce Human Proteins In Their Milk
transgenic plants
Transgenic Plants
  • GM Plants Are Already In US Food Supply
    • 52% Soy Beans
    • 25% Corn
  • Typical Modifications
    • Bt Genes To Lower Pesticides
    • Resistance To Weed Killers
transgenic plants9
Transgenic Plants
  • Future Plant Projects:
    • Plants That Grow Human Antibodies
    • Plants That Grow Plastic
    • Plants With Added Vitamins
      • Golden Rice

Cloning Is The Process Of Using A Donor Cell From An Adult Organism To Grow A New Individual Genetically Identical To The Organism From Which The Donor Cell Was Taken


Ian Wilmut, Scotland, 1997

Cloned A Sheep – Dolly

cloning the process
Cloning – The Process

Step 1:

Donor Cell Taken From Animal To Be Cloned

Can Be Any Diploid Cell With A Nucleus

Donor Nucleus

cloning the process13
Cloning – The Process

Step 2:

Donor Egg Taken From Another Animal Of The SameSpecies – This Nucleus Will Be Removed and Discarded

Donor EGG Cell

cloning the process14
Cloning – The Process

Step 3:

Donor Egg Cell With The Nucleus Removed Is Fused With The Donor Cell Containing The Nucleus From The Animal To Be Cloned

Slight Electric Current

Donor Egg with Nucleus Removed

cloning the process15
Cloning – The Process

Step 4:

In Vitro Development

Create Blastocyst From Cloned Donor Nucleus

If Fused Cell Begins Replicating It Will Be Placed In Tissue Culture Until It Becomes A Blastocyst.


cloning the process16
Cloning – The Process

Step 5:

In Vivo Development

Blastocyst Implanted In Uterus of Surrogate Mother



cloning the process17
Cloning – The Process

Step 6:

Birth - Hopefully

  • Animals Cloned Since 1997
    • Cows
    • Pigs
    • Mice
  • Ethical Issues?