Chapter 13: Genetic Engineering. Standard 5.c Students will know how genetic engineering (biotechnology)is used to produce novel biomedical and agriculture products. . Section 13-2: DNA Manipulation. Genetic Engineering:. Making Changes in the genetic code of a living organism.
Students will know how genetic engineering (biotechnology)is used to produce novel biomedical and agriculture products.
Making Changes in the genetic code of a living organism.
B. DNA Extraction: Like we did in the banana lab. You extract the DNA from the
The cell is _________ (by soap/shampoo) and the DNA is _________ from the other cell parts (by the salt and filtration).
Restriction enzyme EcoRI cuts the DNA into fragments.
C. Cutting DNA: The DNA that was extracted is _________ to be analyzed so it must be cut down.
The DNA is exposed to
______________________, specific to a particular sequence of nucleotides (___________________), and breaks the DNA into smaller fragments. Creating ____________.
mixture of the DNA fragments
D. Separating DNA: Once cut into fragments the DNA is separated and analyzed by __________________
A _____________________________are placed at one end of a gel and an ______________ is applied to the gel.
When the power is turned on the _____________________ molecules move toward the positive end of the gel.
The ___________________________and farther down the gel while the_____________________________.
It can be used to compare ________ of different organisms or individuals.
negatively charged DNA
smaller fragments move faster
larger fragments are slower
read, studied and even changed
Once in a manageable form the DNA can be
B. Unknown DNA strands are exposed to _________________ and the _________________ (A,T,C,G) along with a ________________ and allowed to replicate off the unknown strand____________.
C. With every dye-labeled base added the synthesis of that strand is ____________ .
D. When synthesis is completed the new strands are of _________________ depending on how far the strand had progressed before the dye-labeled base was added.
E. Since each base is labeled with a different color, result is a _______________________________
F. They are then separated by ________________ and the _________________ tells the______________.
series of dye labeled DNA fragments
of different lengths.
color of the bands
A. DNA sequences can now be ________ in many ways.
B. Short pieces can be assembled by using machines known as __________________.
C. New “synthetic” segments of DNA can be joined to “natural” ones using _____________________
D. We can also take DNA from ___________ and splice it to DNA _____________________ .
E. These are examples of __________________ produced by joining DNA from different sources.
enzymes that splice them
from another organism
copies of a gene
We often need to make __________________ (crime scene when only a little DNA can be collected) so we can have enough to run _______________ tests on them.
__________________________ (PCR) is the method by which we do this.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) requires us to do _______________ in a lab.
DNA polymerase begins to copy
only a few cycles
This recombinant DNA technology has allowed
us to add DNA from one organism into another
organism as depicted in the ______________
___________ done in1986. (see fig. 13-12 p. 331)
This showed the _______________ of the genetic
genes from other organisms.
easy to grow
B. Transgenic Microorganisms:
Because of their ability to _________
________________ and are ____________ transgenic bacteria are now used to produce many important substances for ________________
The _______________ of proteins such as insulin, human growth hormone, and clotting factor.
fibers and plastics
C. Transgenic Animals:
Transgenic animals have been used to
Mice have been made with a _________________
________ so they can study the effect of certain diseases on the human immune system.
growth hormone genes
D. Transgenic Plants:
Transgenic plants are now an important part
of our_____________. Also known as _________
______________ (GM) foods.
Many contain genes with _________________ or
insecticides so we don’t have to use damaging
insecticide or pesticide chemicals on the crops. As
well as ______________________ so we can
continue to control weeds.
resistance to weed killers
Many of these plants will soon be able to
produce _________________ that can be used
to fight infections, _______ that can now only
be produced using petroleum, and foods that
are resistant to ________________.
___________ is already being produced. This
is a GM rice that contains ____________
and makes the health of our poorest nations
rot and spoilage
Dolly, a female sheep or ewe, was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer.
A body cell is taken from a donor animal.
An egg cell is taken from a donor animal.
The nucleus is removed from the egg.
The body cell and egg are fused by electric shock.
The fused cell begins dividing, becoming an embryo.
The embryo is implanted into the uterus of a foster mother.
The embryo develops into a cloned animal.
These two cells are fused using an electric shock.
The nucleus of the egg cell is removed.
An egg cell is taken from an adult female sheep.
The fused cell begins dividing normally.
The embryo is placed in the uterus of a foster mother.
The embryo develops normally into a lamb—Dolly
Figure 13-13 Cloning of the First MammalCloning of Dolly the Sheep
Dolly's remains as exhibited in the Royal Museum of Scotland.
Julie holds her nine-week-old cloned cat "Little Nicky" The cat was sold to Julie by Genetic Savings and Clone for $50,000.
South Korean scientists have cloned cats by manipulating a fluorescent protein gene, a procedure which could help develop treatments for human genetic diseases.In a side-effect, the cloned cats glow in the dark when exposed to ultraviolet beams.
Scientists have for the first time created a healthy clone of an endangered species, offering powerful evidence that cloning technology can play a role in preserving and even reconstituting threatened and endangered species.The clone - a cattle-like creature known as a Javan banteng - was grown from a single skin cell taken from a captive banteng before it died in 1980. The cell was one of several that had remained frozen in a vial at the San Diego Zoo until last year, when they were thawed as part of an experimental effort to make cloned banteng embryos.
A dairy cow provided the egg and acted as the surrogate mother. Unfortunately, despite his healthy, masculine physique and nature, the cloned banteng has thus far been unable to produce offspring.