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Chapter 13: Genetic Engineering. Standard 5.c Students will know how genetic engineering (biotechnology)is used to produce novel biomedical and agriculture products. . Section 13-2: DNA Manipulation. Genetic Engineering:. Making Changes in the genetic code of a living organism.

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chapter 13 genetic engineering

Chapter 13: Genetic Engineering

Standard 5.c

Students will know how genetic engineering (biotechnology)is used to produce novel biomedical and agriculture products.

section 13 2 dna manipulation
Section 13-2: DNA Manipulation
  • Genetic Engineering:

Making Changes in the genetic code of a living organism.

slide3

organism of interest.

B. DNA Extraction: Like we did in the banana lab. You extract the DNA from the

The cell is _________ (by soap/shampoo) and the DNA is _________ from the other cell parts (by the salt and filtration).

opened

separated

slide4

Recognition sequences

DNA sequence

Restriction enzyme EcoRI cuts the DNA into fragments.

Sticky end

too large

C. Cutting DNA: The DNA that was extracted is _________ to be analyzed so it must be cut down.

The DNA is exposed to

______________________, specific to a particular sequence of nucleotides (___________________), and breaks the DNA into smaller fragments. Creating ____________.

restriction enzymes

recognition sequence

sticky ends

slide5

Gel Electrophoresis

mixture of the DNA fragments

electric voltage

D. Separating DNA: Once cut into fragments the DNA is separated and analyzed by __________________

A _____________________________are placed at one end of a gel and an ______________ is applied to the gel.

When the power is turned on the _____________________ molecules move toward the positive end of the gel.

The ___________________________and farther down the gel while the_____________________________.

It can be used to compare ________ of different organisms or individuals.

negatively charged DNA

smaller fragments move faster

larger fragments are slower

genes

dna gel electrophoresis

Power source

DNA plus restriction enzyme

Longer fragments

Shorter fragments

Mixture of DNA fragments

DNA Gel Electrophoresis
using the dna sequence
Using the DNA Sequence

read, studied and even changed

Once in a manageable form the DNA can be

_____________________________.

  • Reading the sequence: A _____________ is used to “read” the DNA sequence.

B. Unknown DNA strands are exposed to _________________ and the _________________ (A,T,C,G) along with a ________________ and allowed to replicate off the unknown strand____________.

chemical trick

DNA polymerase

four nucleotides

chemical dye

many times

using the dna sequence8
Using the DNA Sequence

terminated

C. With every dye-labeled base added the synthesis of that strand is ____________ .

D. When synthesis is completed the new strands are of _________________ depending on how far the strand had progressed before the dye-labeled base was added.

E. Since each base is labeled with a different color, result is a _______________________________

_______________________________________

F. They are then separated by ________________ and the _________________ tells the______________.

different lengths

series of dye labeled DNA fragments

of different lengths.

gel electrophoresis

color of the bands

DNA sequence

cutting and pasting
Cutting and Pasting

changed

A. DNA sequences can now be ________ in many ways.

B. Short pieces can be assembled by using machines known as __________________.

C. New “synthetic” segments of DNA can be joined to “natural” ones using _____________________

______________________

D. We can also take DNA from ___________ and splice it to DNA _____________________ .

E. These are examples of __________________ produced by joining DNA from different sources.

DNA synthesizers

enzymes that splice them

together.

one organism

from another organism

Recombinant DNA

making copies
Making Copies

copies of a gene

We often need to make __________________ (crime scene when only a little DNA can be collected) so we can have enough to run _______________ tests on them.

__________________________ (PCR) is the method by which we do this.

multiple DNA

Polymerase Chain Reaction

making copies12
Making Copies

DNA replication

primer sequence

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) requires us to do _______________ in a lab.

  • First we add a _________________ to the DNA fragment at both ends so the _______________ can attach and start working.
  • The the DNA is _________ to cause separation of the two strands.
  • Then, ___________________________ the two strands.
  • The copies can also be copied in the same way and therefore _________________ are needed to make many times the DNA you began with.

DNA polymerase

heated

DNA polymerase begins to copy

only a few cycles

slide13

DNA polymerase adds complementary strand

DNA heated to separate strands

DNA fragment to be copied

PCRcycles 1

DNAcopies 1

3

4

4

8

5 etc.

16 etc.

2

2

PCR
13 4 applications of genetic engineering
13-4: Applications of Genetic Engineering

luciferase

experiment

This recombinant DNA technology has allowed

us to add DNA from one organism into another

organism as depicted in the ______________

___________ done in1986. (see fig. 13-12 p. 331)

This showed the _______________ of the genetic

mechanisms.

  • Transgenic Organisms: organisms that contain

___________________________

  • Key point: Genetic engineering has spurred the growth of biotechnology, which is a new industry that is changing the way we interact with the living world.

universal nature

genes from other organisms.

slide16

rapidly

reproduce

easy to grow

B. Transgenic Microorganisms:

Because of their ability to _________

________________ and are ____________ transgenic bacteria are now used to produce many important substances for ________________

________________

The _______________ of proteins such as insulin, human growth hormone, and clotting factor.

  • Make _____________ bacteria.
  • In the future they may be used for substances that fight ________ and for raw materials for synthetic

_________________________.

health and

industry.

humans forms

oil eating

cancer

fibers and plastics

slide17

study genes and to improve the food supply.

C. Transgenic Animals:

Transgenic animals have been used to

__________________________________________

Mice have been made with a _________________

________ so they can study the effect of certain diseases on the human immune system.

  • Livestock have extra _____________________
  • In the future, the livestock may actually produce in _________________ their milk making it easier for us to collect an refine them.

human immune

system

growth hormone genes

human proteins

slide18

food supply

genetically

modified

D. Transgenic Plants:

Transgenic plants are now an important part

of our_____________. Also known as _________

______________ (GM) foods.

Many contain genes with _________________ or

insecticides so we don’t have to use damaging

insecticide or pesticide chemicals on the crops. As

well as ______________________ so we can

continue to control weeds.

natural pesticides

resistance to weed killers

slide19

human antibodies

plastics

Many of these plants will soon be able to

produce _________________ that can be used

to fight infections, _______ that can now only

be produced using petroleum, and foods that

are resistant to ________________.

___________ is already being produced. This

is a GM rice that contains ____________

and makes the health of our poorest nations

better.

rot and spoilage

Golden rice

vitamin A

slide22

Hello Dolly

Dolly, a female sheep or ewe, was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer.

slide23

Cloning

A body cell is taken from a donor animal.

An egg cell is taken from a donor animal.

The nucleus is removed from the egg.

The body cell and egg are fused by electric shock.

The fused cell begins dividing, becoming an embryo.

The embryo is implanted into the uterus of a foster mother.

The embryo develops into a cloned animal.

Flowchart

Section 13-4

cloning of dolly the sheep

A donor cell is taken from a sheep’s udder.

Donor Nucleus

These two cells are fused using an electric shock.

Egg Cell

The nucleus of the egg cell is removed.

An egg cell is taken from an adult female sheep.

The fused cell begins dividing normally.

Embryo

Cloned Lamb

The embryo is placed in the uterus of a foster mother.

The embryo develops normally into a lamb—Dolly

Foster Mother

Figure 13-13 Cloning of the First Mammal

Cloning of Dolly the Sheep

Section 13-4

Fused Cell

slide26

Dolly (July 5, 1996- February 14, 2003)

Dolly's remains as exhibited in the Royal Museum of Scotland.

slide29

Snuppy and her mothers

Genetic mom

Surrogate mom

slide31

Julie holds her nine-week-old cloned cat "Little Nicky" The cat was sold to Julie by Genetic Savings and Clone for $50,000.

slide33

UV Light

South Korean scientists have cloned cats by manipulating a fluorescent protein gene, a procedure which could help develop treatments for human genetic diseases.In a side-effect, the cloned cats glow in the dark when exposed to ultraviolet beams.

slide40

Scientists have for the first time created a healthy clone of an endangered species, offering powerful evidence that cloning technology can play a role in preserving and even reconstituting threatened and endangered species.The clone - a cattle-like creature known as a Javan banteng - was grown from a single skin cell taken from a captive banteng before it died in 1980. The cell was one of several that had remained frozen in a vial at the San Diego Zoo until last year, when they were thawed as part of an experimental effort to make cloned banteng embryos.

slide42

I’m waiting for my dream girl!

A dairy cow provided the egg and acted as the surrogate mother. Unfortunately, despite his healthy, masculine physique and nature, the cloned banteng has thus far been unable to produce offspring.