R&DA 64th Annual Spring Meeting Italian/NATO combat feeding: what’s brewing? Commander (SC Italian Navy) Alessandro PINI Tucson, May 3rd 2010
Barracks, ships, airports Operative missions, training How do Italian soldiers eat? OUTSOURCING (food prepared/distributed by private Companies) IN HOUSE FEEDING (food prepared/distributed by military chefs)
Italian military rations • NORMAL, for basic conditions (2623 cal/day – 3,50 euros [4.76$]); • MEDIUM, for conditions requiring particular waste of energies (3000 cal/day – 3,95 euros [5.37$]); • HEAVY, for conditions requiring an intense psycho-physical effort(3513 cal/day – 4,43 euros [6.01$]).
Ration financial value Fixed by MoD/Ministry of Finance according to the cost of life. The daily value is subdivided as follows (not a caloric percentage): • breakfast: 10% • lunch: 52% • dinner: 38%
Feeding typologies C)Cpy cooks its foodstuff in its premises (within 30 km or 40’ driving) and brings it to Hq. 32% (mostly Army) costs Infrastructuresuitability high low B)Cpy cooks itsfoodstuff in Hq. premises 42%(mostly Army) medium medium A)Cpy cooks military foodstuff in Hq. premises 26%(mostly Air Force, some Navy) high low old system: “in house” feeding
Outsourced feeding: The last contract
Outsourced feeding: prices • Cpy cooks military foodstuff in Hq. premises: • B/L/D: average 5,46 € (7.42 $); • Average lunch: 2,72 € (3,70 $); • B)Cpy cooks its foodstuff in Hq. premises: • B/L/D: average 10,60 € (14.40 $); • Average lunch: 5,30 € (7.20 $); • C)Cpy cooks its foodstuff in its premises and brings it to Hq.: • B/L/D: average 12,02 € (16.33 $); • Average lunch: 6,04 € (8,20 $).
Catering: topic figures • Contracts: 2 (2 joint venture/22 Companies); • Units/Commands: 387 • People served: ± 87,000 servicemen/women • Value: ± 120,000,000 € (± 160,000,000$) • Batches: 6 (per geographical areas - see next)
Units location North-west (62) North-east (66) North-central (69) Rome & surroundings (62) Central-south (60) South (68)
Units: the furthest, the largest • Arabba alpine Centre (in the Alps, 1,645 mt [5,400 ft] high): 23 people; • Ministry of Defence Navy bldg., Rome: ±1.600 people/day.
Penalties: the lightest, the heaviest • Delayin meal distribution: 1 € per meal (e.g.: in a 1.000 eaters Unit = 1,000 € [1.360 $]); • Lackof meal distribution: 20 € per meal (e.g.: in a 1.000 eaters Unit 20.000 € [27.300 $]).
Contract: what’s new? • Chance to adjust performance to local context; • chance to change typology of feeding upon request; • since 2009 a “dynamic” document deals with • the risks due to working interferences (to ensure • safe working conditions of both Company and Hq. • personnel); • system of random audits.
Feeding in PKOs Policy • Greatest flexibilityto comply with different deployment situations • to cut ASAP the umbilical cordwith the Mother Country • to privilege “local” resourceswhensuitable (security vs. terrorism) • to adjust all solutions to the social/political context and to the financial resources of the host Nation • compliance with hygienical and food safety rules
Feeding in PKOs Navy policy • Countertrend: ships do not outsource; • Ships buy fresh food locally (no more food depots); • Early Entry Force: K-rations up to 5/7 days (then fresh food).
Future Soldier Programme 5 key areas agreed within NATO: • lethality: target acquisition, recognition & strike; • C2, communication, info processing, situation awareness (C4ISTAR/SA); • surviving capacity upgrade; • mobility; • system sustainability (available quantity of electricity for optronic systems, ammo,food, drinks and consuming goods.
Italian cooking: key historic topics 1931: the “Futurist” way of cooking comes from the ideas of the “Futurist” movement of Marinetti, born in 1909 to revolutionize arts, literature, music, theatre, dancing and cooking to repudiate the lifestile of the past and to comply with the dynamism of the modern life. The forerunner was the french cook Jules Maincave, who wanted to join elements divided by prejudices with no serious meaning, such as: mutton fillet and shrimp sause, veal pope’s eye and absinth, banana and gruyère, herring and strawberry jelly. The Futurists gave a stimulus to all practical and intellectual activities. The gastronomic paradoxes as well as the aesthetic ones, aimed at the moral evolution: it was necessary to shake the Matter to wake up the Spirit.
Italian cooking: key historic topics (2) The Futurists “condemned” pasta, guilty to produce in the addict consumers “weakness, pessimism, nostalgic inactivity and neutralism”. They wanted to abolish the use of fork and knife, the traditional seasoning, weights and volumes in the recipies and wished to create new bits and to join dishes with music, poetries and perfumes, inviting Chemists to create new flavours. A perfect meal needs only two things: original harmony of the table (cristalware, china, decoration) absolute originality of food. Some recipies anticipated the Italian Nouvelle Cuisine.
Italian cooking: key historic topics (3) ’50s - ’70s:cooks lived in a restrained world, handing down the recipies by knowledge (without knowing why); ’80s: “Trattoria”: a simple & cheap place where to eat traditionally cooked food; ‘90s: creative cooking(Marchesi): to reproduce traditional recipies in a lighter way. Cooks start to study the physical/chemical aspects of food; 2000: molecular cooking (Ferràn Adrià): food transformation.
Italian cooking: key historic topics (4) Today: menu structure reviewed: one only dish + side-dish (veggies); quicker meals: frugal lunch, dinner remaining the main meal (codified recipies just for main feasts/occasions); less caloric intake, knowledge of raw materials, smaller portions, respecting the mediterranean diet; meal balance: diet variety, seasonal food, cooking pattern; the web: info available to all; Industry pilot the information, thus influencing poeple eating habits.
Trends To prevent & to monitor youth obesity: in 2007 The Ministry for Health launched an information & education campaign called “Gaining Health" to change the lifestyle thus reducing the increasing trend in overweight and obesity. The individual has to become responsible of his/her own choices and the Government have to make these choices achievable; some burroughs of Rome and some small villages created several protected pathways which allow pupils to go to school by foot and also points where to make physical activity. Someone brings them to school by foot to avoid using a car even for short distances and to accustom them to walk.
Trends (2) The Ministry for Health established eating guidelines not only to supply a proper meal but also to teach children how to properly eat; Eating at school is strictly controlled in order to give pupils the adequate energy and nutrients intake as well as high quality food; Attention is given to the portion size, taking in mind that “the dose makes something poisonous”, Paracelso (Swiss alchemist, astrologer and doctor 1493 – 1541).
To fight against “Globesity”! Trends (3) Look at the dog!!!
RTG – 154: Combat ration for the NRF Participating Nations: • Australia • Belgium • Canada • Check Republic; • France; • Georgia (ex U.R.S.S.); • Germany; • Italy; • Netherland; • Norway • Slovenia; • United Kingdom; • United States (Chairman) started in April, 2006 - expired April, 2009.
A combat ration for the NATO RESPONSE FORCE NRF is a land/air/sea highly ready and technologically advanced force (up to 25,000 people) deployable everywhere within 5 days of notice and self sustaining for 30 days with no re-supply. It is capable of performing missions worldwide across the whole spectrum of operations. These include evacuations, disaster management, counterterrorism, and acting as ‘an initial entry force’ for larger, follow-on forces. “First-in, first-out”
RTG – 154: the goal The NATO RTG - 154, “Nutrition Science and Food Standards for Military Operations” was charged to: • identify emerging technologies, products, and innovations for combat feeding, nutrition, and performance-optimizing components across various ration platforms (individual, group, and special purpose/assault rations) matched to operational mission requirements of the deployed NRF; • develop standards for nutrition, packaging, and combat rations that support the NRF deployment doctrine, mission profile, and operational flexibility to ensure nutrition, combat feeding and performance are optimized as a combat force multiplier.
Programme of Work 1. Define current types and characteristics of individual rations and supplements provided by each nation; 2. Identify requirements/capabilities required to support NRF (30 days); 3. Recommend nutritional value requirement for rations to be provided to the NRF; 4. Identify which rations satisfy the NRF requirements; 5. Develop a better understanding of the psychological aspects of ration consumption (menu fatigue, cultural preferences, stress) and their consequences on nutrition in the field; 6. Make recommendations on ration interoperability.
Standards for NRF Combat Rations:nutritional topics Combat rations are designed to meet specific national tastes, employ different styles of packaging, contain different equipment for food preparation and use a wide variety of means of combat ration distribution. Therefore interoperability is a major topic. It was agreed that the nutritional requirements of NRF should be determined in order to make recommendations on the optimal values for the nutritional content of individual combat rations to maximize physical and cognitive performance of the NRF across the range of operational conditions. An independent SME (Wageningen University,the Netherlands) was given the work to assess the suitability of each ration, using the recommended nutritional standards as the criteria.
Data collection,definitions and matrix The following nutritional characteristics were identified and grouped in a matrix as relevant: energy, proteins, carbohydrate, fats and the minerals sodium, calcium, and iron. Non-nutritional characteristics were divided into those that have a major impact on nutrition, and those that are more functional/operational in nature. Relevant non-nutritional variables linked to nutrition are duration of use, basis of issue, shelf life food components and accessories Characteristics considered to be of more functional & operational significance are water requirements, preparation and support requirements, heater, weight, volume, packaging and shipping container data.
Matrix key data 1. COUNTRY 2. POINT OF CONTACT 3. RATION NAME 4. PRODUCT DESCRIPTION 5. INTENDED MISSION 6. DURATION OF USE a. Number of days of consumption b. Limiting Factors c. Current 30 day subsistence plan 7.BASIS OF ISSUE 8. SHELF LIFE 9. STORAGE REQUIREMENTS 10. NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION a. Energy b. Protein c. Carbohydrate d. Fat e. Sodium f. Iron g. Calcium h. Other (Optional) 11. MENUS a. Total number of menus b. Unspecified meals c. Breakfast d. Lunch e. Dinner f. Menu cycle 12. RATION CONTENT a. Food components b. Accessories c. Water treatment 13. WATER REQUIREMENTS 14. PREPARATION & SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS 15. HEATER a. Furnished with the ration b. Special requirements 16. PACKAGING a. Packaging of the ration or individual meal b. Packaging of internal components of the ration 17. WEIGHT 18. DIMENSIONS/CUBE 19. SHIPPING CONTAINER DATA 20. ADDITIONAL DATA 21. COMMENTS
Standards for NRF Combat Rations: non nutritional topics It was agreed that there is a number of factors that could either positively or negatively influence the consumption of individual combat rations in the field. An independent SME was contracted to: • determine the non-nutritional characteristics likely to influence ration consumption during deployment; • compare the non-nutrient characteristics of individual combat rations currently in use by participating nations with the recommended characteristics as above. • develop a rationale to recommend acceptable characteristics of rations suitable for meeting non-nutritional requirements (acceptable sensory characteristics, menus, packaging, portion size, energy density and feeding concepts).
Non nutritional topics • Key issues: • cross-cultural food/dietary preferences and aversions; • religious, social and gender influences; • emotions & moods; • consumer perceptions, expectations and attitudes.
Non nutritional topics: the food • Portion size • Food temperature • Food compatibilities • Food quality, acceptance • Correlation of liking and intake • Food packaging and labeling • Packaging effort • Food presentation • Dishes & Utensils • Food variety and monotony • Sensory specific satiety • Interaction with choice • Food authenticity and country of origin
Non nutritional topics: the individual • Age • Gender • Expectations • Religious influences • Traits and attitudes (Food neophobia, food involvement, dietary restraint & variety seeking) • Cross-cultural food and dietary preferences/aversions • Commensality (social facilitation, social modeling) • Impact of foods on moods and emotions • Satiety
Non nutritional topics: the location • Location • Appropriateness • Time of day (meal patterns, grazing) • Choice • Comfort • Temperature/weather • Eating duration (social facilitation) • Convenience (effort, time) • Meal components (hot and cold meals, food/meal appropriateness) • Price, value and free food
Interoperability The interchangeability of material used by different Countries without the risk of operational difficulties which could mean soldiers not eating enough of the right nutrients to sustain health and performance in a broad mix of operational mission requirements. What if personnel of one Country are provided with another Country’s combat rations which is not consumable? (no cutlery, no heater, different tools, different pallets, different language).