Cold War Era Adapted from Williams & Cauble Griggs Road
Day 1: Post WWII Changes • Interdependence • UN • Video: YouTube, “UN for Kids” • NATO • Text p. 386 (NATO) • Video: “Berlin Airlift & Formation of NATO” • OPEC
Interdependence • Can you think of something that countries around the world lacked (needed)? • What about an organization to join them all together? • Interdependence: to depend, or rely, on each other (text p. 17) • The U.S. depends on trade with other regions for goods & services we don’t produce. -all regions of the U.S. are interdependent 1. a decision about what to produce in one region, affects people all over the country
United Nations (UN) • After WWII, many nations wanted to avoid future war. • Formed during the late 1940’s & 1950’s • 51 Nations met to establish the UN -purpose=find peaceful solutions to international issues -forum for debating world issues -polices local conflicts -includes a general assembly & security council (S.C.) 1. allies of WWII were permanent members of the S.C. • UN is now made up of 192 members. Segment: UN for Kids
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) • military alliance originally established as a response to the growing threat of the Soviet Union following WWII • Original Members=Western Europe, U.S., Canada • Now=26 countries around the Atlantic • Each member agreed to defend each other if Soviet Union attacked. • Why would there need to be an agreement between countries that share an ocean? • In most cases, the U.S. seeks the support of NATO and/or the UN before becoming directly involved in international conflicts. Segment: Berlin Airlift & Formation of NATO
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) • plays a major role in determining the rate of petroleum production as well as the price of their products -organized by nations who produce petroleum products • U.S. relies on large amounts of oil imported from other countries. -must work with OPEC to ensure that we receive the petroleum products necessary to sustain our level of usage 1. energy crisis of the 1970’s shows our reliance on OPEC
Day 2: Impact of WWII • Textbook p. 402-405 • Suburbs, Outskirts, Suburbanization • Baby Boom • Life in the 1950’s • Video: “How We Lived in the 50s” • Atlas: “Baby Boom & Suburban Growth”
Impact of WWII on the Economy • Many women returned home as men returned to work -homemakers (mothers & wives), consumers (traditional roles) • Factories returned to producing consumer goods instead of war materials. -wartime workers had money to spend -products that had been rationed/unavailable during war were in high demand (especially autos) -postwar prosperity allowed many people to spend money on many new American technologies and products.
Impact of WWII on the Family • Soldiers returning from the war married & started families. -wanted to buy/build new homes (development of suburbs) 1. made possible by greater availability of the auto. 2. large tracts of land located in the outskirts of town were bought by developers, divided into hundreds of plots for new homes to be built -Americans began to leave the cities 1. moved to suburbs & commute to work 2. new highway systems linked metropolitan cities & increased suburbanization (give suburban characteristics to a rural area)
Impact of WWII on the Family • Baby Boom: increase in number of babies born after WWII. -During the Great Depression & WWII, many couples put off having children. 1. new peace & economic prosperity encouraged couples to start a family. 2. during the 50s, U.S. population grew by over 28 million people. 3. more babies were born between 1948-1953 than in the previous 30 years.
Life During This Time • The economy was booming. • People became able to buy their own homes. • Many moved from large cities to large housing developments in the suburbs. An advertisement for a suburb. Interesting fact: Every house in Levittown had its own bomb shelter!
New Inventions Television Washing Machine Ad Dishwasher
More Inventions Electric Lawnmowers First Computer TV Dinners
Entertainment & Leisure • First Shopping Mall Northgate Mall in Seattle, WA while under construction Notice all the farmland?
Entertainment & Leisure • Popular Music Genres: Rock ‘N Roll, Country, Rhythm and Blues, Jazz, and Calypso • Elvis Presley (5) • Bobby Darin (8) • Buddy Holly (4) • Richie Valens (1) • Pat Boone (6) • Perry Como (3) • Nat King Cole (7) • Dean Martin (2) 1 5 1 4 6 2 3 8 7
Entertainment & Leisure • TV Shows • American Bandstand • I Love Lucy • The Twilight Zone • Mickey Mouse Club • Other Interesting Facts • “Peanuts” comic strip debuts (1950) • Disneyland in California opens • Tropical fish becomes most popular pet in 1957. Clip from very first “Peanuts” comic strip
Toys • Ideal Dolls (Shirley Temple, Betsy Wetsy) • Legos (Early 1950’s) • Mr. Potato Head (1952) • Matchbox Cars (1954) • Play-doh (1956) • Hula Hoops (1957) • Barbie (1959) • Slip ‘N Slide (Late 1950’s)
Other Important Advances • Papermate Leak Free Ball Point Pen (1950) • Chevrolet Corvette was first car to have an all-fiberglass body. (1954) • Solar Battery (1954) • Polio Vaccine (1955) • Solar Powered Wrist Watch (1956) • First Plastic Coke Bottle (1958) • Billboards (1950’s)
Art • New kinds of art were also developed • Jackson Pollock developed the “drip and splash” technique of painting canvas • Mark Rothko painted large blocks of color. Lavender Mist by Pollock
Day 3: Mass Media/Consumerism, Pop Culture, & Technology • Mass Media/Consumerism • Mass Media/Pop Culture • Technology
Mass Media/Consumerism • As a result of the increase in wartime jobs, Americans had savings to purchase new products that weren’t available during the war. -autos, televisions, radios(mass media: means of getting information and pop culture to the general masses) • Advertising encouraged people to buy (boom in economy) -increasing consumerism (an ever-expanding consumption of goods is advantageous to the economy) -consumers had more to spend=service industries expand 1. drycleaners, restaurants • More consumer credit was available (CREDIT CARDS)
Mass Media/Pop Culture • Widespread availability of radio, movies, and TV helped spread pop culture (music, movies, and other things in a culture that are popular) throughout the U.S. -radio=rock & roll -television=center of American family entertainment 1. “boob tube”=boob “stupid person” + tube “television”, sets had vacuum tubes in them
Pop Culture and Mass Media of the 1950’s Brooke Ard Winthrop University Intern, and Kimberly Terry, Crowders Creek Middle School Teacher
What is Rock and Roll? • Rock and roll was a combination of rhythm and blues music with country and western music.
Alan Freed • Alan Freed was the first disc jockey to play rock and roll music on the radio for multi-racial audiences.
Sun Records • Sun Records was a recording studio. Possibly one of their greatest achievers was Elvis Presley.
Elvis Presley • Elvis Presley was the first person to become a rock and roll superstar. • In 1954, Elvis recorded his first hit called “That’s All Right (Mama)”
Bill Haley • Was another rock and roll star who got his start in the early 1950’s. He and his band, Bill Haley and the Comets, are widely known for their hit song, “Rock Around the Clock.”
Chuck Berry • Said to be one of the greatest artists in rock and roll music. • One artist once said: If you tried to give rock and roll another name, you might call it “Chuck Berry.”
Little Richard • Richard Wayne Penniman was his name, but he went by the “stage name” of Little Richard. • He put together funk and rock and roll to create his own style that others followed. “Lucille”
Jerry Lee Lewis • Was known for the way that he played his piano during his performances. • #24 on the list of 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.
Buddy Holly • “One of the most influential founding father’s of rock and roll” • Elvis Presley influence him to turn to rock and roll music.
The TV Replaced the Radio! “Video Killed the Radio Star” TV “killed” radio shows. People preferred to watch TV than listen to a show on the radio.
Technology • Automobiles -automatic transmission, radial tires, power steering -led to highway systems, motels, fast food restaurants • Air Conditioning -moved the family off the porch & inside to the TV -made the South more attractive place to live & establish industry • Jet Engines -pressurized cabins, faster & more efficient air travel • Telephone -long distance, improved service • Television -strengthened national & international (between/among nations) connections
Day 7 & 8: Communism vs. Democracy • Cold War definition • Handout: “Stalin’s Soviet Union • Textbook p. 384-385 • Communism vs. Democracy comparison chart • Back in the Good Old Days p. 102 • What Made Them Say That p. 272, 249, 247 • “Russians” by Sting
Capitalism & Democracy • Capitalism: make sure that the people have more power than the government (ordinary people & businesses control the production of goods & services). -goods and resources stay in the hands of the citizens. 1. private ownership=people have the opportunity to profit or lose based on their OWN work. 2. free market economy: individuals & businesses make most economic decisions. -if the government grows too powerful & infringes on the rights of the people, it is hard to take back control 1. checks & balances protect the people (voting rights too)
Communism • Communism: idea that all goods & resources of a community should be shared among the citizens. -totalitarian government is the basis of communism 1. Government controls a nation’s resources & people by monopolizing the ownership of property. 2. Authorities redistribute necessary goods (food, housing, etc.) back to the people. -command economy: government makes most economic decisions & can command what will be produced -people had no control over who their leaders are (no vote), have few rights, & little freedom.
Day 9: Spread of Communism • Cold War definition • Soviet Union’s Goal • U.S. Goal • Textbook p. 390-391, 394-395 • What Made Them Say That p. 224-225 • “99 Luftballoons” by Nena • Atlas 49
Cold War Definition • Cold War: war of philosophy (ideas), words (threats), & hostility (fighting); shortly after WWII-1991 -term made popular by Winston Churchill (speech in 1946) 1. struggle between democracy & communism 2. “Iron Curtain” an impenetrable barrier between communism & democracy -1940’s & 50’s= suspicion, hostility, & persecution 1. Anti-communist hysteria in government 2. pursuit of U.S. communists & sympathizers 3. constitutional rights widely & systematically sacrificed 4. threat of nuclear/atomic warfare -fighting in the countries of Korea & Vietnam 1. Western Nations vs. Soviet Union & China (and communist allies)
Goals of Cold War • Soviet Union’s Goal: spread communism -eastern Europe & eventually the whole world -gave money & supplies to communist army during a civil war in China (1949) – led to their success 1. Soviet Union & China are 2 of the largest nations in the world (now both communist) • U.S. Goal: containment (restraining the ideological or political power of a hostile country or operations of a hostile military force) of communism & spread democracy & free enterprise (capitalism) -prevent a “domino effect” of communism by building military bases around the world
Day 10: McCarthyism • Video: “Red Scare & Racism” • Textbook p. 391 • Back in the Good Old Days p. 125 • Cold War Era Jackdaw Photos
McCarthyism/Red Scare • McCarthyism: mass panic/suspicion of others of being communist in the U.S. (It is important to be the same…anything different was perceived as communist.) -Joseph McCarthy was a U.S. senator that accused many people of being spies for communist Soviet Union. He was an anti-communist (movement to stop the spread of communism/communist ideas). 1. believed secret communists worked in the U.S. government (spying for Soviet Union) 2. began searching for communists causing hundreds of government employees to lose their jobs (Red Scare) 3. made up most of these claims 4. accused some actors (Ricky Ricardo, “I Love Lucy”), teachers, & writers of supporting communist ideas causing them to lose their jobs/prevent them from working
Day 11: Korean War • Text p. 392 • Video: Democracy vs. Communism: Korean War • Video: The Korean War • Atlas
Korean War • After WWII, Korea divided into two countries -S. Korea supported by U.S. -N. Korea (communist government) by Soviet Union -N. Korea invades S. Korea (June 1950) 1. U.S. thought Soviet Union planned the attack and rallied the UN to defend S. Korea, trying to contain communism. 2. MacArthur led UN forces (including soldiers from 16 nations) • Cold war is no longer a war of ideas & threats, but now hostility too.
Korean War • North Korea’s Goal: -unite the peninsula into one communist government 1. South Korea didn’t want to become communist • War ended in a stalemate -UN troops pushed N. Korea out of S. Korea -China (communist) sent soldiers to aid N. Korea -war drags on for 3 years, thousands of American soldiers lost -both sides agree to cease fighting 1. peninsula remained divided (38th parallel) 2. N. Korea remains an ally with the Soviet Union (still is today)