Feeding the Preterm Infant - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

feeding the preterm infant n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Feeding the Preterm Infant PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Feeding the Preterm Infant

play fullscreen
1 / 85
Feeding the Preterm Infant
367 Views
Download Presentation
amora
Download Presentation

Feeding the Preterm Infant

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Feeding the Preterm Infant Jill-Marie Spence, RD April 2013

  2. Outline • Introduction • Human Milk • Preterm Formulas • Nutritional Needs: • Micropreterm • SGA • Late Preterm Infant • Post-discharge Nutrition • Growth • Conclusion

  3. Estimated Nutritional Requirements • AAP recommends: the postnatal nutrient intake in the preterm infant should “provide nutrients to approximate the rate of growth and composition of weight gain for a normal fetus of the same post-menstrual age, and to maintain normal concentrations of blood and tissue nutrients.” Is this goal achievable or desirable?

  4. Scientific versus KnowledgeGlobal Neonatal Consensus Symposium, Feeding the Preterm Infant (2010) • Gap exists -> new recommendations are needed • Requirements for specific nutrients • Immaturity of host defenses • Nutrient metabolism • Tissue repair mechanisms • Nutritional requirements • micropreterm (< 27 weeks gestation, < 800 grams) • late preterm (34 to < 37 weeks) • SGA vs. AGA (SGA > 35 weeks gestation, < 10th ile) • Postdischarge

  5. Nutritional management of preterm infants varies between neonatal units, physicians, dietitians, provinces and countries • Lack of specific data and recommendations • What do we do? • Need for standardization of feeding practices (best practice) • Enteral feeding tables (< 1500 grams) • International consensus for nutritional requirements

  6. Identify the challenges that prevent us from translating our understanding of science to practical application. Global Neonatal Consensus Symposium, Feeding the Preterm Infant 2010

  7. Human Milk and the Nutritional Needs of Preterm Infants

  8. Colostrum and Transitional Milk Improves immune function Promotes gut maturation

  9. Benefits of Human Milk • Nutritional • 70% whey:30% casein • Protein fractions are defined by their solubility in acid • Whey protein (α – lactalbumin): • Soluble proteins are more easily digested • promotes gastric emptying • contains lactoferrin, lysozyme, and secretory IgA which influences host resistance • Whey protein human and bovine milk are vastly different from both a compositional and functional point

  10. Carbohydrate • > 90% of the lactose in human milk is absorbed • Nonabsorbed lactose softens stool, improves absorption of minerals, and supports growth of beneficial intestinal flora • 10 – 15% are oligosaccharides • Act as a prebiotic facilitating growth of bacteria (Bifidus spp.) • Prevent bacterial attachment to the host mucosa • Prevents systemic infection and NEC

  11. Gastrointestinal • Improves gut motility • May increase stool frequency • May decrease feed intolerance • Full enteral feeds are reached quicker • Decreases the incidence of NEC

  12. Enhances maturation of the mucosal barrier • Human milk contains lipase • improves intestinal lipolysis and fat absorption • Preterm infants have reduced pancreatic and lingual lipase activity, reduced bile pool which decreases fat absorption and increases steatorrhea

  13. Immunological protection • Inhibits proinflammatory cytokines • Lower incidence of late onset sepsis, UTI, diarrhea, and URT • Developmental • Promotes better longer-term outcomes – neurodevelopment, cardiovascular risk, bone health • Psychological • Stronger feelings of attachment, maternal empowerment, self confidence and esteem

  14. Decreases the rate of sudden infant death syndrome • Endocrine • Decreases the incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes

  15. Nutritional content of human milk varies with • Time after delivery • Length of gestation • Length of each lactation episode • Foremilk (2-3 minutes) • Hindmilk (higher fat and energy content) • Method of expression and collection • Sodium concentrations may be higher with hand pumping than mechanical pumping (Edmond, 2012)

  16. Unique barriers and challenges result in decreased rates of breastfeeding • Inpatient • Lactation consultant referral on admission • Outpatient • Ask questions – refer mom’s to Breastfeeding Clinic

  17. Donor Human Milk • Advantages and disadvantages of feeding DHM versus PTF need to be considered • Birth weight < 1250 grams • GA < 32 weeks • Severely growth-restricted infants of any gestation (< 3rd % ile) • Multiples • Post NEC (Stage ll or lll) • Neonates of any gestation with a surgical bowel

  18. DHM is pasteurized - potentially harmful bacteria, lipase, lymphocytes and other components are removed from HM • Bile salt-stimulated lipase – increases fat absorption • 30% reduction in fat absorption -> affects growth Anderssson Acta Paediatr 2007 • Lymphocytes – offers immunologic protection to GIT • Nutritional content • No RCT’s have been conducted to compare preterm DHM with term DBM

  19. Many of the benefits of HM are still unknown Human milk is a living tissue that cannot be duplicated

  20. Composition of Preterm Transitional, mature, and term mature milk Schanler, Atkinson in Tsang 2005

  21. Unfortified Human Milk < 36 weeks • Preterm HM does not provide adequate quantities of nutrients required by preterm infants • Associated with slower growth • Decreased protein and energy intake • Protein and fat concentrations vary widely • Protein content decreases throughout lactation • Higher risk of metabolic bone disease • Deficiencies of micronutrients • HM is preferred over formula feeding • Supplementation or fortification is required to support the higher nutrient requirements

  22. Human Milk Fortifier Groh-Wargo Enteral nutrition support Nutr Clin Prac 2009 • Bwt < 1500 grams, < 34 weeks • Bwt 1500 grams – 1800 grams • Consider 2 HMF/100 mL EBM -> reevaluate growth and adjust HMF accordingly • High acuity • PN > 2 weeks • Suboptimal growth

  23. Breast milk fortification: effect on gastric emptying Yigit J Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 2009:21(11) • 20 infants, average 29.8 weeks, bwt 600 – 1470grams • Infants between 6 and 30 days of age • Feeding volumes 100 – 120 mL/kg/day • Balanced crossover design • Measured the mean percentage changes in the antral cross sectional area against time • Same infant on the same day with each of the test feedings • Unfortified HM • Half-fortified HM • Fully fortified HM

  24. Average ½ emptying time • BM 49 + 23 minutes • Half-fortified HM 54 + 29 minutes • Full strength fortified HM 65 + 36 minutes • Differences of average half-emptying time between feeding groups were not statistically significant • No correlation between gastric emptying rate and gestational age or postnatal age

  25. To evaluate feeding intolerance in premature infants immediately after the addition of HMF to their EHM Moody JPGN 2000:30(4) • 76 human milk-fed premature infants • Bwt: 1065 + 18 grams • GA: 27 + 0.1 weeks • Assessed for 5 days before and after the addition of HMF • Results: Abdominal distension, GRV, emesis NS • Conclusion: Feeding intolerance and outcome of premature infants were not affected by the addition of HMF to expressed mother’s milk.

  26. HM supplemented with nutrients is recommended for all infants born < 32 weeks and supplementation may be required for infants 32 -36 weeks of gestation Global Neonatal Consensus Symposium, Feeding the Preterm Infant (2010)

  27. Preterm Formulas • Enriched with energy, macronutrients, minerals, vitamins and trace elements • Indications: • < 34 weeks gestation age + 1800 – 2000 grams birth weight • Inadequate supply of mother’s milk • Mom not able to or wishing to breast feed • Donor human milk not available

  28. Whey dominant • Promotes gastric emptying and digestion • Cysteine and Taurine added • Methionine -> Cysteine • Cysteine -> Taurine • Conditionally essential

  29. LCPUFA • Fetus does not synthesize LCPUFAs from their precursors at rates sufficient to support an adequate DHA accretion rate • DHA content in human milk is highly variable

  30. DHA in breast milk varies with maternal dietAuestad et al. Pediatrics 2001;108:372-381 Camielli et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1323-1330

  31. Formulas are supplemented with DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and ARA (arachidonic acid) • Better neurological outcomes • May improve visual acuity and cognitive development • Potentially significant modulatory effects on growth, body composition, immune and allergic responses

  32. Assuming a DHA intestinal absorption rate of 80%, DHA intake between 55 – 60 mg/kg/d provides DHA at the fetal accretion rate.

  33. Current formulas support growth and protein accretion at or slightly greater then intrauterine rates. • may increase fat deposition • Current formulas @ 150 mL/kg/d provide 3.5 – 3.6 g/kg/d and 120 kcal/kg/d (PE: 2.9 grams protein:100 kcal) • Protein intake -> Lean mass accretion • Energy intake -> Fat accretion

  34. The more immature an infant, the greater the need for enteral feeding with a higher protein:energy ratio to meet the goal of greater protein gain relative to fat • Cochrane Database Systematic Review (2010) • Meta-analysis of five RCT’s of LBW infants • Higher protein group (3-4 g/kg/day) had a better weight gain and rate of nitrogen accretion compared to the lower protein group (< 3 g/kg/day) • Promoted lean body mass gain

  35. Amino-Acid Based Infant Formulas • Cow’s milk protein allergy • Multiple food protein intolerance • Infants unable to tolerate hydrolysate based formulas • Short Bowel Syndrome • Other GI disorders

  36. Current Recommendations • CPS 1995 • Life Science Research Office of American Society 2002 • Nutrient requirements for stable, growing preterm infants > 1000 grams birth weight and nutrient composition of PTF’s • Tsang et al 2005 • Reasonable Nutrient Intakes (RNI’s) for ELBW and VLBW infants and for different stages of post-natal life

  37. World Health Organization 2006 • Recommended nutrients for infants < 32 wks gestation, 32-36 weeks and >37 weeks but birth weight < 2500 grams • European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition 2010 • 1000 to 1800 grams birth weight • < 1000 grams protein recommendation only

  38. Enteral Requirements

  39. Nutritional Needs of the Micropreterm Infant < 30 weeks gestation (subset are SGA; weight < 10th percentile at birth) Tudehope J Ped 2013;162:s72-80

  40. Body water as a percentage of body weight decreases rapidly during the last trimester • 24 – 28 weeks • 80% weight gained as water • 8% weight gained as fat • 36 to 40 weeks • 60% weight gained as water • Term • 20% weight gained as fat

  41. By 25 weeks gestation • Fetal intestine capable of digesting and absorbing milk • 25 – 30 weeks • Disorganized motility

  42. Lack of published data to guide nutritional management • At risk for postnatal growth failure • Complications of extreme prematurity • Longer period of time to meet recommended dietary intake • Failure to provide adequate nutrients for recovery or catch-up growth • Accumulate greater nutritional deficits • Associated with adverse neurodevelopment outcomes

  43. TPN • Maintain a continuous nutrient supply until feeds can be established • Minimal enteral feeds – 1st to 2nd day of life • Incremental advancement to full feeds

  44. Start fortifying human milk at 100 mL/kg/day • Supply sufficient protein, energy, sodium, calcium, phosphorous, trace elements and vitamins to compensate for accumulated deficits • Ideal postnatal growth rate for micropreterm infants is not known • Goal is to replicate the fetal growth rate of at least 15 – 20 g/kg/d

  45. Evidence-based guidelines are not available • Nutrient requirements at discharge • Individual assessment • GA, BW • Presence or absence of growth restriction • Requirement for catch-up growth • Clinical factors