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Chapter 17

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  1. Reconstruction, 1863-1877 Chapter 17

  2. 1. Describe Lincoln’s proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction. • Lincoln’s plan offered presidential pardon to Southern whites (w/exception of Confederate gov’t officials & high ranking military officers) IF • They took a pledge of allegiance to U.S. AND • Excepted abolition of slavery • Once the # of oath takers in a city hit 10%--white males over 21—they could reestablish a state gov’t which Lincoln promised presidential recognition

  3. 2. Why did Lincoln veto the Wade-Davis Bill? • He opposed the very difficult loyalty requirements that it would impose • And didn’t enfranchisemeof blacks

  4. 3. Why was Andrew Johnson chosen as the VP candidate in 1864? • He was chosen for two main reasons: • He was the only senator from a seceding state who refused to support the Confederacy • He had a long history of not supporting the slave-owning south

  5. 4. What did Radical Republicans want to do with Reconstruction as opposed to what Johnson was doing? • Johnson issued a blanket amnesty for all but the highest ranking Confederate officials and military officers • Named a provisional governor for N.C. and directed him to call for an election of delegates to frame new constitution • Wanted to bring country back together quickly but without helping newly freed slaves and punishing upper-class whites • Radical Reps thought he was letting Confederates go too easy and by making no provisions to help newly freed slaves it was almost defeating purpose of abolution

  6. 5. What steps were southern states taking that led some to believe another rebellion was possible? • No enfranchisement was given to African Americans • Some were putting up a fight over ratification of 13th Amendment • Johnson began issuing pardons that restored property and political rights to many high ranking Confederates • 100s of ex-Confederates were being elected to public office at all levels of gov’t

  7. 6. What was the purpose of the black codes? • Provide a definition for the rights of these almost 4 million former slaves • Predecessor to Jim Crow laws • Exclusion from juries, voting, denied permission to testify in court against whites, banned interracial marriage, called for harsher punishments than whites for same crime

  8. 7. Describe the postwar south. • Physical destruction was immense • Loss of labor source left many large plantation owners on their own for survival • New contracts for work created between former slaves and slave owners • Migration of African Americans to cities • Increase in crime • Rise in vigilante groups

  9. 8. What was the role of the Freedman’s Bureau? • Created by Congress in 1865 and its primary purpose was for overseeing relations between former slaves and owners • Help negotiate work contracts • Expanded to provide food, education, legal aid

  10. 9. Who promised ‘40 acres and a mule’? • No one really, another historical ‘misunderstanding’ • The closest to doing so was Gen. Sherman • Had issued a military order setting aside thousands of acres of abandoned plantation land in Georgia and S.C. for the settlement of freed slaves • As President Johnson’s pardons and blanket amnesty went into effect, plantation owners returned to reclaim land

  11. 10. Compare the black literacy rate in 1880 and 1900. • 1880—30% • 1900—52%

  12. 11. Once Congress took over control of Reconstruction, what did they do with it? • Refused to admit representatives and senators elected by the former Confederate states under Johnson’s reconstruction policy • Set up a special committee to formulate new terms • Testimony to committee convinced them of need for stronger federal intervention to define and protect the civil rights of freed people • Passed two laws (both over Johnson’s veto) • Extension of Freedman’s Bureau • Defined freedpeople as citizens with equal legal rights and gave courts right to enforce these rights

  13. 12. Describe the 14th Amendment. • Defined all native-born or naturalized persons, including blacks, as American citizens, and prohibited the states from taking the citizenship rights away • Most important for defining and enforcing civil rights • Gave states the option of either enfranchising black males or losing a number of Congressional seats and electoral votes • Disqualified a significant # of ex-Confederates from holding federal or state office • Guaranteed the national debt and refused the debt of the Confederates • Gave Congress the power to enforce this Amendment

  14. 13. Why was Johnson’s National Union Party unsuccessful? • Mainly due to their inclusion of Northern democrats who were ‘tainted’ for having been against the war • Also due to race riots where former Confederate soldiers killed blacks, many whom were former Union soldiers • Johnson’s behavior didn’t help either, he would often trade insults with crowds gathered to hear him speak

  15. 14. Explain the Reconstruction Acts of 1867. • 2 laws for the full restoration of the former Confederate states (except TN) • Divided the South into 5 military districts • Directed army officers to register new voters for the election of delegates to new constitutional conventions • Enfranchised males over 21, including blacks, were eligible to vote in these elections • Disenfranchised ex-Confederates who were disqualified from seeking office under 14th Amendment • Once state had new constitution that granted equal civil and political rights regardless of race and had ratified 14th Amendment it would be deemed reconstructed and congressmen could take office

  16. 15. How was Johnson able to sway a few Republicans not to vote for his impeachment? • He promised to appoint Gen. John Schofield as secretary of war and to stop obstructing the reconstruction acts • He was able to sway 7 Republicans and his impeachment was saved by one vote

  17. 16. Identify two things that most constitutions included. • 1. universal male suffrage • 2. Statewide public schools for both races • Some included disenfranchisement for ex-Confederates for several years, but were removed by 1872

  18. 17. Explain the 15 Amendment. • Prohibited states from denying the right to vote on grounds of race, color, or previous conditions of servitude • Purpose was to prevent the reconstructed states from revoking black suffrage while at the same time extending equal suffrage to northern and border states

  19. 18.Why were the National Women Suffrage Association and the American Equal Rights Associations at odds if they supported the same thing? • Even though both were supporting women’s right to vote, the AERA supported the 15th Amendment, but the NWSA found it unfair since it specifically excluded women.

  20. 19. Why do some refer to Grant’s time as President as the “Era of Good Stealings”? • Lots of gov’t corruption came out during his administration • Credit Mobilier (construction company for Union Pacific Railway) was most famous • Expansion of bureaucracy and large number of gov’t contracts opened door for cheaters

  21. 20. What was the purpose of the Pendleton Act? • Eliminate the spoils system by revamping the civil service sector • The test

  22. 21. Explain the Treaty of Washington and its impact. • Treaty of Washington was created to settle claims of damage against England for the destruction of some Confederate raiders being built by British shipyards • Awarded $15.5 million to the U.S. • Led to the establishment of modern Canada • British North American Act—united most of Canadian colonies into a new and largely self-governing Dominion of Canada

  23. 22. What was the main purpose of the KKK? • Social control of the black population • Destroy the Republican Party by terrorizing its voters, and if necessary killing its leaders • Believe that once this party is gone from South they can resume ‘social control’

  24. 23. What was behind the Panic of 1873? • Main triggers were unprecedented growth with main reliance upon increasing saturated railroad industry • Construction of 2nd transcontinental railroad and its funding were behind the crash

  25. 24. What are some factors that led to the end of Reconstruction? • Economic trouble in the north • Concerns over corruption • Opposition to the ‘bayonet’ rule • Racial equality becomes less important

  26. 25. What are the steps of the Mississippi Plan? Why were they created? • Step 1—persuade 10 to 15% of white Republican voters to switch to Democratic side • Using economic pressure, social ostracism and blatant threats • Step 2—intimidate black voters • Economic coercion and violence

  27. 26. What was the effect of the U.S. v. Cruikshank and U.S. v. Reese Supreme Court rulings? • They overturned the laws to enforce the 14th and 15th Amendments because the laws stated officials could prosecute individuals, court ruled only could prosecute at state level

  28. 27. Describe what happened in the 1876 presidential election? • Corruption & inaccuracy caused Dems to refuse to accept Hayes as Prez • Dems controlled House but Reps controlled Senate—creating deadlock • Appointment of electoral commission who end up awarding Hayes with disputed states and thereby the presidency • Hayes promised to support federal appropriations to rebuild war destroyed levees of lower Mississippi and federal aid for southern transcontinental rr • Also promised end to bayonet rule as long as south promised fair treatment of freedpeople and protection of their rights