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16. A Topical Approach to. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT. Schools, Achievement, and Work. John W. Santrock. Schools. Educating Children with Disabilities. Approximately 10 percent of children in the U.S. receive special education or related services. Schools. Learning Disabilities.

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  1. 16 A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Schools, Achievement, and Work John W. Santrock

  2. Schools Educating Children with Disabilities • Approximately 10 percent of children in the U.S. receive special education or related services

  3. Schools Learning Disabilities • Learning disabilityincludes: • A minimum IQ level • A significant difficulty in a school-related area • No other conditions, such as • severe emotional disorders • second-language background • sensory disabilities • specific neurological deficits

  4. Schools Widespread Learning Disabilities • Dyslexia—severe impairment in ability to read and spell • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)—children consistently show one or more of : 1) inattention 2) hyperactivity 3) impulsivity

  5. Schools Special Educational Law • Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act • Individualized education plan (IEP)—a legal, written program describing a disabled child’s academic plan • Least restrictive environment (LRE)—child with disability educated in setting similar to where other children educated • inclusion—educating child with special education needs in regular classroom

  6. Schools Socioeconomic Status in Schools • Compensatory Education • Project Head Start—designed to provide children from low-income families opportunity to acquire skills and experiences important for school success • School inequalities • School in low SES areas poorly equipped, have inexperienced teachers

  7. Extrinsic Incentives such as rewards and punishments Rewards can undermine motivation except when it conveys info about performance Intrinsic Factors such as self-determination, curiosity, challenge, and effort Increased by opportunity for choices Achievement Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation

  8. Achievement Mastery Motivation • Mastery orientation—task-oriented; concerned with learning strategies • Helpless orientation—one seems trapped by difficulty and attributes one’s difficulty to a lack of ability • Performance orientation—achievement outcomes; winning matters

  9. Achievement Attribution Theory • Attributions - perceived causes of outcomes • Internal - person’s personality, motives • Effort, intelligence • External - situational factors • Luck

  10. Achievement Self-Efficacy • Belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes

  11. Achievement Goal-Setting, Planning, and Self-Monitoring • Students high in self-efficacy • Set goals that are specific and challenging • Show high levels of persistence • Create a plan to reach goals and monitor progress

  12. American children perform poorly on international math and science tests Compare different samples of students Different attitudes about achievement Different teaching styles Achievement Cross- Cultural Comparisons of Educational Achievement

  13. Work Development of Career Aspirations Young children Idealistic fantasies about what they want to be when they grow up High school Career decision making more serious as they explore different career possibilities College Choosing major or specialization designed to lead to work in a field Early adulthood Start full-time occupation

  14. Work Holland’s Model of Personality Types and Career Choices

  15. Personality Types and Career Choices: Examples • Realistic: farming, construction • Investigative: science, computers • Artistic: graphic design • Social: teacher, therapist • Enterprising: politics, sales • Conventional: accountant

  16. Work Values and Careers • When people know what they value most—what is important to them in life—they can refine career choice more effectively

  17. Work Monitoring the Occupational Outlook • Service-producing industries will account for most new jobs • Jobs that require college degrees fastest-growing and highest-paying • Labor force participation rates of women projected to increase

  18. Work Age and Job Satisfaction

  19. Work Work in Adolescence • Three-fourths of U.S. high school seniors have had work experience • Most work 16-20 hours per week • Most work in service jobs • Restaurants, retail, clerical • Students who work fewer hours generally have the most positive outcomes, i.e. < 16-20 hours/week

  20. Work Advantages and Disadvantages of Part-Time Work for Adolescents • Pros • Understand how business world works • Learn how to get and keep a job • Manage money • Budget time • Pride in accomplishments • Evaluate goals • Cons • Give up sports • Forego social affairs with peers • Less sleep • Balance demands of work, school, family, and peers • Lower grades if work >20 hours/week

  21. Work Changing Gender Roles in Work • Men increasing responsibility for maintaining home • Women increasing responsibility for breadwinning • Men showing greater interest in family and parenting

  22. Work Changing Percentages of Traditional & Dual-Career Couples

  23. Work Careers and Work in Middle Adulthood • Midlife time of evaluation, assessment, and reflection • Recognizing limitations in career progress • Deciding whether to change jobs or careers • Rebalance family and work • Planning for retirement

  24. Work Work in Late Adulthood • Percentage of older adults who work part-time steadily increased since 1960s • Good health • Strong psychological commitment to work • Distaste for retirement • Cognitive ability

  25. Work Retirement • Option to retire late-twentieth-century phenomenon in U.S. • Today’s workers will spend 10 to 15 percent of their lives in retirement • 80 percent of baby boomers said they expect to work during retirement

  26. Work Adjustment to Retirement Adjust best when: • Healthy and active • Adequate income • Better educated • Extended social network • Satisfied with life before retirement • Retirement was a choice

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