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4. A Topical Approach to. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT. Health. John W. Santrock. Health. Health, Illness, and Disease Nutrition and Eating Behavior Exercise Substance Use and Addiction. Health, Illness, and Disease. The Bio-Psycho-Social Health Model.

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  1. 4 A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Health John W. Santrock

  2. Health • Health, Illness, and Disease • Nutrition and Eating Behavior • Exercise • Substance Use and Addiction

  3. Health, Illness, and Disease The Bio-Psycho-Social Health Model • Asia and Greece: ancient physicians believed good habits essential to good health • New model that health is best understood in terms of • Biological Factors • Psychological Factors • Social Factors

  4. Health, Illness, and Disease Children's Health • In last 50 years • Shift toward prevention and outpatient care • Vaccines prevent many diseases • Children’s motor, cognitive, and socio-emotional development makes health care needs unique • Caregivers play important role • Poverty is a special concern • Approximately 11 million preschool children in U.S. malnourished

  5. Age Immunization 2 months Diphtheria, Polio, Influenza 4 months Diphtheria, Polio, Influenza 6 months Diphtheria, Influenza 1 year TB test 15 months Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Influenza 18 mos, 4-6 yrs Diphtheria, Polio 11-12 years Measles, Mumps, Rubella 14-16 years Tetanus-diphtheria Health, Illness, and Disease Recommended Immunization Schedule of Normal Infants and Children Fig. 4.1

  6. Health, Illness, and Disease Adolescents' Health • A Critical Juncture in Health • Many factors linked to both poor health habits and early death in the adult years begin during adolescence • Families, peers, schools influence health • Health Services • Use private physician services at lower rate than other age groups; lowest use by older males

  7. Health, Illness, and Disease Young Adults' Health • Most have few chronic health problems • Know how to stay healthy but adopt unhealthy lifestyles • Many college students unrealistic, overly optimistic about future health risks • Hidden dangers in peaks of performance and health in early adulthood

  8. Health, Illness, and Disease Gender, Health, and the Health-Care System • Women and men experience health and health-care system differently • Males may use health care inadequately • Special concerns for women’s health issues • Medicine — male-dominated profession • Gender bias affects medical research • Most research conducted with men

  9. Health, Illness, and Disease Chronic Disorders • Characterized by slow onset, long duration • Gender differences • Fatal chronic disorders affect men more • Nonfatal chronic disorders affect women more • Socioeconomic differences • Poor older adults 3 times more likely than non-poor to be limited by chronic disorder

  10. Health, Illness, and Disease Increasing Disabilities with Age Fig. 4.2

  11. Health, Illness, and Disease Osteoporosis • Aging disorder involving extensive bone tissue loss • Related to calcium deficiencies • Gender differences — 80% of cases women • Affects 2/3 of women over age 60 • Common in white, thin, small-framed women • Diet, exercise, weightlifting can help

  12. Health, Illness, and Disease Alzheimer's Disease • Dementia — global term; Alzheimer is one form • Progressive, irreversible brain disorder with gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, eventually, physical function • Rate increasing in U.S.; no cure • Causes not fully identified; early and late onset • Healthy lifestyle, medication can slow progression

  13. Health, Illness, and Disease Alzheimer's Disease • Early detection: MCI and special brain scans • Caring for patients is exhausting, some respite care available • Parkinson disease • Another type of dementia, no cure • Chronic and progressive, triggered by loss of dopamine production in brain • Medication available, loses effect over time

  14. Health, Illness, and Disease The Robust Oldest-Old • Persons 80 years and older • Frail image fueled by media • A substantial subgroup of oldest old are robust and active • Less than 60% have a disability • Health care and medical treatment can improve functioning, provide intervention

  15. Health, Illness, and Disease Health Treatment for Older Adults • Probability of living in nursing home increases with age • Quality varies enormously • 1/3 are seriously deficient; cause for national concern, fail inspections • Home health care, elder-care centers, preventative medicine good alternatives

  16. Health, Illness, and Disease Percentage of U.S. Older Adults of Different Ages In Nursing Homes Fig. 4.4

  17. Health, Illness, and Disease Health Treatment for Older Adults • Important factors for residents • Feelings of control and self-determination • Alert, responsive, caring staff • Effective coping skills • Opportunities to make choices • Positive staff, absent of stereotyping beliefs • Active role in medical encounters

  18. Health, Illness, and Disease Perceived Control and Mortality Fig. 4.5

  19. Nutrition and Eating Behavior Infancy • Breastfeeding versus Bottle-Feeding • Benefits of breastfeeding: • Appropriate weight gain • Lowered risk of childhood obesity • Fewer allergies, lower risk of illnesses • Denser bones in childhood • Reduced risk of SIDS • Advanced neurological, cognitive development • Better vision

  20. Nutrition and Eating Behavior Infancy • When breastfeeding is avoided • Physical difficulties • Lifestyle conditions • HIV virus • Poor, developing countries • Few or no alternatives • Unsanitary health risks • Death rates linked to bottle-feeding

  21. Nutrition and Eating Behavior U.S. Breastfeeding Trends Fig. 4.6

  22. Nutrition and Eating Behavior Malnutrition in Infancy • Marasmus — wasting away of body tissues in first year; severe protein-calorie deficiency • Kwashiorkor — deficiency in protein; child’s abdomen and feet swollen with water • Nutritional supplements linked to long-term effects on cognitive development • Lowest SES groups benefited most

  23. Nutrition and Eating Behavior Nutrition in Childhood • Poor nutrition is special concern for many low-income children in U.S. • Children showed more aggression, hyperactive and excessive motor behaviors • Positive influences on nutrition and health • WIC program linked to reduced risk of obesity • Malnutrition threatens many in developing countries during childhood

  24. Nutrition and Eating Behavior Healthy and Unhealthy Eating • Most children’s diets need improvement • Eating away from home, high fat foods • Good diet can have long-term effects • Basal metabolism rate (BMR)— minimal amount of energy a person uses in a resting state - suggest how much to eat • Include low fat foods, milk, vegetables, eaten with family away from TV

  25. Nutrition and Eating Behavior Childhood Obesity • Consequences of Obesity • Increases child’s risk of medical problems • Low self-esteem and depression common; has links to bullying • Treatment of Obesity • Diet • Exercise • Behavior modification • Problem among adolescents

  26. Nutrition and Eating Behavior Increase in Overweight U.S. Adolescents Fig. 4.8

  27. Nutrition and Eating Behavior Ethnicity and Overweight in U.S. Adolescents Fig. 4.9

  28. Nutrition and Eating Behavior Eating disorders • Anorexia Nervosa— relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation • Most are white females from well-educated, middle- and upper-income families • Competitive families, high achievement goals • Media and American culture fashion image • Bulimia Nervosa— individual consistently follows a binge-purge eating pattern

  29. Nutrition and Eating Behavior Adult Development and Aging • Obesity • Heredity and environmental influences • Health problems increasing • Dieting • Restrained eating — individuals who chronically restrict food intake to control their weight • Concern for fad diets and obsession with thinness • Most effective programs include exercise • Harms and benefits of various diets

  30. Nutrition and Eating Behavior Questions About Aging and Nutrition • Food Restriction and Longevity • Food-restricted animals live longer, healthier lives • Leaner men live longer, healthier lives • Increase in body mass linked to earlier death • The Vitamin-and-Aging Controversy • Antioxidant supplements may slow aging process, improve health of older adults; still controversial • Vitamin supplements help cognitive performance

  31. Exercise Childhood and Adolescence • Concern: lack of exercise and obesity • Boys more physically active at all ages than girls • Effects of TV watching, computers, video games • Childhood habits continue in adolescence • Getting children and adolescents to exercise • More physical activity programs at school • Plan community and school exercise activities • Encourage families to focus on physical activity

  32. Exercise Exercise in Adulthood • Moderate and intense exercise may produce important physical and psychological gains • Prevention of heart disease, live longer • Aerobic exercise: sustained activity that stimulates heart and lung functioning (e.g. jogging, cycling) • Exercising enough to burn more than 2,000 calories a week can cut risk of heart attack by two-thirds

  33. Exercise Ways to Get Yourself to Exercise More • Reduce TV time • Chart your progress • Get rid of excuses • Eliminate “I don’t have time” by making exercise a priority • Imagine the alternative • Learn more about exercise

  34. Exercise Aging and Longevity • Minimize physiological changes in aging, health • Optimize body composition • Related to prevention of common chronic diseases • Associated with improved treatment of diseases Exercise benefits: • Related to preventing and treating disability • Counteract side effects of standard medical care, improve quality-of-life and outcomes • Linked to increased longevity

  35. Exercise Physical Fitness and Mortality Fig. 4.12

  36. Exercise Drugs, Health, and Addiction • Long menu of psychoactive drugs used around the world • Alcohol use: religion, gender, nationality • Cultural acceptability of substance abuse is no measure of safety • Alcohol and cigarettes pose serious health and development risks for adolescents and adults • Secondhand smoke

  37. Substance Use and Addiction Addiction • Pattern of behavior characterized by overwhelming involvement with using a drug and securing its supply • Psychological dependence • Physiological dependence • Withdrawal symptoms • Whether addictions are diseases is matter of controversy

  38. Substance Use and Addiction Addiction • Life-process model • Habitual response and source of gratification and security • Can only be understood in context of persons’ lives, social relationships, experiences, and environments Disease model • Biologically-based • Lifelong disease that involves loss of control over behavior • Requires medical and/or spiritual treatment • Promoted by medical profession and AA

  39. Substance Use and Addiction Trends in Drug Use By U.S. Eighth-, Tenth-, and Twelfth-Grade Students Fig. 4.13

  40. Substance Use and Addiction Alcohol and Cigarettes • Drinking has declined among U.S. adolescents, but rates still high • 19 percent of eighth graders, 48 percent of high school seniors drank in past 30 days • Binge drinking, mostly males • Smoking has declined heavily • Prices, anti-tobacco ads, social disapproval • Can cause permanent genetic lung changes • Roles of parents and peers

  41. Substance Use and Addiction Fatal Lung Cancer andYears Since Quitting Smoking Fig. 4.15

  42. Substance Use and Addiction Substance Abuse in Adulthood • Smoking and lung cancer risk decreasing; cigarette and cigar smoking still a concern • Alcohol use remains accepted part of U.S. culture • Half of all college students drink heavily • Binge drinkers and reported problems • College students drink more than youths ending education after high school

  43. Substance Use and Addiction Substance Abuse in Adulthood • Patterns of use • Persons not attending college smoke more • Singles use marijuana more than marrieds • Singles and divorced persons drink more • Engagement or marriage reduces alcohol use • Drug use lower among regular church attendees

  44. Substance Use and Addiction Binge Drinking in the Adolescence — Early Adulthood Transition Fig. 4.16

  45. Substance Use and Addiction Age and Binge Drinking Fig. 4.17

  46. Substance Use and Addiction Substance Abuse in Older Adults • Alcohol Use Declines • Majority of 65 and over abstain completely • “Invisible Epidemic” of illicit and prescription drug abuse that goes undetected • Multiple medications • Mixing medicines with alcohol • Consequences may be attributed to other medical or psychological conditions

  47. 4 The End

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