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9. A Topical Approach to. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT. Language Development. John W. Santrock. What is Language?. Defining Language. Form of communication, whether spoken, written, or signed, based on system of symbols

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  1. 9 A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Language Development John W. Santrock

  2. What is Language? Defining Language • Form of communication, whether spoken, written, or signed, based on system of symbols • Infinite generativity—ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules.

  3. What is Language? Language’s Rule Systems Phonology Rules regarding how sounds are perceived as different and which sound sequences may occur in the language Morphology Units of meaning involved in word formation Syntax Ways words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences Semantics Meanings of words and sentences Pragmatics Appropriate use of language in context

  4. How Language Develops Sequence of Infant Vocalizations • Crying - from birth • Cooing - 1 to 2 months • Babbling - around 6 months • Gestures - 8 to 12 months

  5. How Language Develops Language Development in Infancy • Follows the same developmental pattern regardless of culture • Recognizing language sounds • First words • Two-word utterances • Telegraphic speech—use of short and precise words without grammatical markers

  6. How Language Develops Understanding Phonology and Morphology • Children know morphological rules • Plural and possessive forms of nouns • Past tense of verbs • Children abstract rules and apply them to novel situations • Sometimes overgeneralize rules

  7. How Language Develops Understanding Syntax • Children show growing mastery of complex rules for how words should be ordered throughout elementary school years

  8. How Language Develops Advances in Semantics • Speaking vocabulary ranges from 8,000 to 14,000 words for 6-year-olds • Rate of 5 to 8 words per day from 12 months old • Estimated rate of 22 words a day for 6 year olds

  9. How Language Develops Advances in Pragmatics 3 Years Old Improve ability to talk about things not physically present 4 Years Old Develop remarkable sensitivity to needs of others in conversation 4 to 5 Years Old Change speech style to suit the social situation or age of listener

  10. How Language Develops FAMILY ENVIRONMENT • Infants whose mothers spoke more often to them had markedly higher vocabularies • Vocabularies linked to socioeconomic status of families • Home language environment linked to child’s syntax

  11. Amount of Maternal Speech and Infant Vocabulary

  12. Language Input and Young Children’s Vocabularies

  13. How Language Develops Model of Developmental Stages of Reading

  14. How Language Develops Reading: Two empirically supported approaches Whole-language approach Instruction should parallel children’s natural language learning; reading materials should be whole and meaningful Basic-skills-and-phonetics approach Stresses phonetics and basic rules for translating symbols into sounds; early reading instruction should involve simplified materials Represent world with word,images, drawings(2-7 years)

  15. How Language Develops Middle and Late Childhood: Bilingualism • Bilingualism—the ability to speak two languages—has positive effect on children’s cognitive development • Learning second language easier for younger children • Children’s ability to pronounce second language with correct accent decreases with age

  16. Grammatical Proficiency and Age of Arrival in U.S.

  17. Biological and Environmental Influences The Brain’s Role in Language • Aphasia—language disorder resulting from brain damage; involves loss of ability to use words • Broca’s area—area of brain’s left frontal lobe that directs muscle movements involved in speech production • Wernicke’s area—area of brain’s left hemisphere involved in language comprehension

  18. Broca’s and Wernicke’s Areas of the Brain

  19. Biological and Environmental Influences Language Acquisition Device • Chomsky’s term for biological endowment that enables child to detect features and rules of language

  20. Biological and Environmental Influences The Behavioral View of Language • Language a complex skill learned through reinforcement • Problems with behavioral view: • Does not explain how people create novel sentences • Children learn syntax of language even if they are not reinforced • Fails to explain the extensive orderliness of language

  21. Biological and Environmental Influences Adult Influences on Children’s Language Development Child-directed speech Language spoken in a higher pitch than normal with simple words and sentences Recasting Rephrasing a statement that a child has said, perhaps turning it into a question Expanding Restating, in a linguistically sophisticated form, what a child has said Labeling Identifying the names of objects

  22. Biological and Environmental Influences An Interactionist View of Language • Biology and experience both contribute to language development • Biologically prepared • Children acquire native language without explicit teaching • Some do so without encouragement • Environmental Contribution from Sociocultural Context • Caregivers provide Language Acquisition Support System (LASS)

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