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8. A Topical Approach to. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT. Intelligence. John W. Santrock. The Concept of Intelligence. What Is Intelligence?. Difficult to define because it is a complex concept that includes many different aspects Common definitions: Thinking skills

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  1. 8 A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Intelligence John W. Santrock

  2. The Concept of Intelligence What Is Intelligence? • Difficult to define because it is a complex concept that includes many different aspects • Common definitions: • Thinking skills • Ability to adapt to and learn from everyday experiences

  3. The Concept of Intelligence The Binet Tests • Mental age (MA)—individual’s level of mental development relative to others • Intelligence quotient (IQ)—person’s mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100 • Normal distribution—symmetrical distribution of scores around a mean

  4. The Concept of Intelligence The Normal Curve and Stanford-Binet IQ Scales

  5. The Concept of Intelligence Common IQ Tests • The Stanford-Binet • Overall IQ, plus verbal comprehension, nonverbal reasoning and memory factors • One version for all ages • The Wechsler Scales • Overall IQ, verbal IQ, performance IQ • Three versions for different age groups

  6. The Concept of Intelligence The Use and Misuse of Intelligence Tests • Intelligence tests are: • substantially correlated with school performance • moderately correlated with work performance • IQ tests can easily lead to false expectations about individual • Other factors also affect success

  7. The Concept of Intelligence Factor Approaches to Intelligence Two-factortheory Spearman’s theory that individuals have both general intelligence, g, and specific intelligences, s, Multiple-factortheory Thurstone’s theory that intelligence consists of seven primary mental abilities: verbal comprehension, number ability, word fluency, spatial visualization, associative memory, reasoning, perceptual speed

  8. The Concept of Intelligence Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences • Verbal • Mathematical • Spatial • Bodily-Kinesthetic • Musical Skills • Interpersonal • Intrapersonal • Naturalist

  9. The Concept of Intelligence Sternberg’s Triarchic Theoryof Intelligence • Three main types of intelligence • Analytical (problem-solving) • Creative (unique, insightful) • Practical (social skills, street smarts)

  10. The Concept of Intelligence Triarchic Theory in the Classroom • Analytic ability favored in conventional schools • Creative students may be reprimanded or marked down for nonconformist answers • Practical students may do better outside school

  11. The Concept of Intelligence Emotional Intelligence • Perceive and express emotions accurately and adaptively • Understand emotion and emotional knowledge • Use feelings to facilitate thought • Manage emotions in oneself and others

  12. The Concept of Intelligence The Influence of Heredity and Environment • Genetic Influences • Heritability—fraction of variance in IQ in a population that is attributed to genetics • Environmental Influences • Modifications in environment can change IQ scores considerably • Parent communication • Schooling

  13. Intelligence Correlations of Twins

  14. The Flynn Effect: Increase in IQ from 1932 to 1997

  15. The Concept of Intelligence Culture and Intelligence • Cross-cultural comparisons problematic • Different cultures define intelligence differently • Cultural bias in testing • Culture-fair tests contain items that all individuals have an equal chance of doing well on

  16. Ethnicity and Intelligence Comparisons • As a group, African Americans students average lower intelligence test scores than White students • Individual scores vary considerably • Socioeconomic status may have more effect than ethnicity • Stereotype threat - fear of confirming negative stereotypes can raise anxiety during testing

  17. The Development of Intelligence Other Aspects of Intelligence (John Horn) • Crystallized intelligence • Accumulated information and verbal skills, which increase with age • Fluid intelligence • Ability to reason abstractly, which steadily declines from middle adulthood on

  18. The Development of Intelligence Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence and Age

  19. The Development of Intelligence The Seattle Longitudinal Study • Since 1956, studied: • Vocabulary • Verbal memory • Number computations • Spatial orientation • Inductive reasoning • Perceptual speed

  20. The Development of Intelligence Longitudinal Changes in Six Intellectual Abilities

  21. The Development of Intelligence Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Comparisons of Intellectual Change

  22. The Development of Intelligence Wisdom • Expert knowledge about practical aspects of life that permits excellent judgment about important matters • High levels of wisdom are rare • Emerges late adolescence and early adulthood • Factors other than age are critical • Personality-related factors better predictors of wisdom

  23. The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Mental Retardation • Condition of limited mental ability • Low IQ on traditional test of intelligence • Difficulty adapting to everyday life. • Onset of characteristics by age 18

  24. The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Giftedness • Above-average intelligence (IQ of 130 or higher) or superior talent for something • Precocity • March to their own drummer • Passion to master • Greater maturity and fewer emotional problems

  25. The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Creative Thinking • Ability to think in novel and unusual ways • Come up with unique solutions to problems

  26. The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Characteristics of Creative Thinkers • Flexibility and playful thinking • Inner motivation • Willingness to risk • Objective evaluation of work

  27. The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Changes in Creativity During Adulthood • Individuals’ most creative products were generated in their thirties • 80% of most important creative contributions completed by age 50 • Researchers found creativity often peaks in forties before declining

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