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16. A Topical Approach to. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT. Schools, Achievement, and Work. John W. Santrock. Schools, Achievement, and Work. Schools Achievement Careers, Work , and Retirement. Schools. Contemporary Approaches to Student Learning and Assessment. Direct Instruction Approach

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  1. 16 A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Schools, Achievement, and Work John W. Santrock

  2. Schools, Achievement, and Work • Schools • Achievement • Careers, Work, and Retirement

  3. Schools Contemporary Approaches to Student Learning and Assessment • Direct Instruction Approach • Teacher-centered approach characterized by • Teacher direction and control • Mastery of academic material • High expectations for students’ progress • Maximum time spent on learning tasks

  4. Schools Contemporary Approaches to Student Learning and Assessment • Cognitive Constructivist Approaches • Emphasizes child’s active, cognitive construction of knowledge and understanding • Teacher provides support for students exploring their world and developing knowledge • Main theory: Piaget’s theory

  5. Schools Contemporary Approaches to Student Learning and Assessment • Social constructivist approaches • Focuses on collaboration with others to produce knowledge and understanding • Main theory: Vygotsky’s theory • Constructivist approaches • Learner is center of educational process; learner-center principles

  6. Schools Accountability in Schools • State-mandated tests have taken on a more powerful role —No Child Left Behind • Critics argue that they lead to • Single score being used as sole predictor • Teaching to test; use of memorization • Tests don’t measure important skills like creativity and social skills

  7. Schools Schools and Developmental Status • Early childhood education • Many ways young children are educated • The child-centered kindergarten • Emphasizes the whole child • Physical, cognitive, socioemotional development • Needs, interests, and learning styles • Emphasizes learning process

  8. Schools Developmentally Appropriate and Inappropriate Education • Developmentally appropriate practice —focuses on typical development of children within age span (age appropriateness) and uniqueness of each child (individual appropriateness) • Developmentally inappropriate practice— relies on abstract paper-and-pencil activities given to large groups

  9. Schools Controversy in Early Childhood Education • What should curriculum be? • Child-centered, constructivist approach • Academic, instructivist approach • Child dependent on direct instruction • Emphasizes accountability, high standards • Many high quality programs includes both

  10. Schools Elementary School • Change from “home-child’’ to “school-child” • New roles and obligations • Too often, early schooling has more negative feedback; lowers child’s self-esteem • Teachers often pressured to cover curriculum; • Tight scheduling; may harm children

  11. Benefits Independent from parents’ monitoring More opportunities for friends More subjects to select from Challenging work Feel more grown up Drawbacks Stressful — many changes at once Top-dog phenomenon Schools Educating Adolescents Transition to Middle or Junior High School

  12. Schools Effective Schools for Young Adolescents • Criticisms • Watered-down versions of high schools • Lack age-appropriate curricular and extracurricular schedules • Massive, impersonal, and lacking • Recommendations of Carnegie Foundation

  13. Schools High School • Concerns about education and students • Graduate with inadequate skills • Enter college needing remediation classes • Student drop out rates • Ethnic and racial differences • Gender differences

  14. Schools High School • Need for more effective programs • More support needed to enable students to graduate with knowledge and skills needed to succeed • Need higher expectations for student achievement

  15. 40 35 30 25 Percent of 16- to 24-year-olds who havedropped out of school 20 15 10 5 0 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 Year Schools Trends in High School Dropout Rates Fig. 16.3

  16. Schools College and Adult Education • Transition to College • Replays the top-dog phenomenon • Many of same benefits found in high school • Movement to a larger, more impersonal school • Interact with peers of more diverse backgrounds • Increased focus on achievement and assessment

  17. Schools College and Adult Education • Adult education includes • Literacy training • Community development • University credit programs • On-the-job training • Continuing professional education • Women — the majority of adult learners

  18. Schools Educating Children with Disabilities • Approximately 10 percent of children in the U.S. receive special education or related services

  19. Diversity of Children Who Have A Disability Fig. 16.4

  20. Schools Learning Disabilities • Learning disabilitycharacteristics: • A minimum IQ level • A significant difficulty in a school-related area • No other conditions, such as • severe emotional disorders • second-language background • sensory disabilities • specific neurological deficits

  21. Schools Learning Disabilities • Dyslexia— severe impairment in ability to read and spell • Dyscalculia— impairment of math ability • Diagnosing is difficult task • Many intervention strategies available

  22. Schools Learning Disabilities • Boys classified about 3x more than girls; biological vulnerability • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)— children consistently show one or more of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity • Diagnosis and characteristics • Causes and treatment

  23. Schools Special Educational Law • Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act • Individualized education plan (IEP) — written program tailored to child with disability • Least restrictive environment (LRE) — child with disability educated in setting similar to where other children educated • Inclusion — educating child with special education needs in regular classroom

  24. Schools Socioeconomic Status in Schools • Low-income, ethnic minority children face more difficulties in school • Compensatory Education • Project Head Start — provides children from low-income families opportunity to acquire skills and experiences important for school success • School inequalities • School in poor areas poorly equipped, have inexperienced teachers

  25. Schools Ethnicity in Schools • Minority students are majority in some schools • Many inner city schools • Still segregated • Grossly underfunded • Do not provide adequate opportunities to learn effectively • Effects of SES and ethnicity often intertwined • Claims of institutional racism in U.S. schools

  26. Turn class into jigsaw classroom Use technology to foster cooperation Positive personal contact with diverse other students Engage in perspective taking Help students think critically and be emotionally intelligent Reduce bias View school and community as team Be competent cultural mediator Schools Improving relationships among ethnically diverse students

  27. Extrinsic Incentives such as rewards and punishments Rewards can undermine motivation Intrinsic Factors such as self-determination, curiosity, challenge, and effort Increased by opportunity for choices Achievement Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation

  28. Student internal motivation and intrinsic interest in school tasks increase when more opportunities for choice available Some rewards can undermine learning; rewards most effective with high interest Rewards convey mastery information Developmental shifts Achievement Self-Determination and Choice

  29. Achievement Mastery Motivation • Mastery orientation— task-oriented; concerned with learning strategies • Helpless orientation— one seems trapped by difficulty and attributes one’s difficulty to a lack of ability • Performance orientation— achievement outcomes; winning matters

  30. Achievement Attribution Theory • Attributions— perceived causes of outcomes • Internal— person’s personality, motives, effort • External— situational and environmental factors • Self-Efficacy • Belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes

  31. Achievement Goal-Setting, Planning, and Self-Monitoring • Self-efficacy and achievement improve when individuals set goals that are • Specific • Proximal (short-term) • Challenging • Students can set both long and short-term goals; need to plan to reach goals and monitor progress

  32. Achievement Ethnicity and Culture • Ethnicity and Achievement • Often tangled with Socioeconomic Status • SES better predictor of achievements • Many minorities challenged by • Negative stereotypes and discrimination • Poverty • Culture and conflicting neighborhood values

  33. American children perform poorly on international math and science tests Compare different samples of students Different attitudes about achievement Different teaching styles Differing parental expectations Achievement Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Educational Achievement

  34. Achievement Cross- Cultural Comparisons of Educational Achievement Fig. 16.6

  35. Careers, Work, and Retirement Career Developmental Changes Idealistic fantasies about what they want to be when they grow up Young children Career decision-making more serious as they explore different career possibilities High school Choosing major or specialization designed to lead to work in a field College Start full-time occupation Early adulthood

  36. Careers, Work, and Retirement Values and Careers • Important aspect of choosing a career — match career to one’s values • Monitoring the Occupational Outlook • Service-producing industries will account for most new jobs • Jobs requiring college degrees will be fastest-growing and highest-paying • Labor force participation rates of women projected to increase

  37. Careers, Work, and Retirement Work in Adolescence • U.S. high school students • 90% receive high school diplomas • 75% work part-time and attend school • Most work 16-20 hours per week • Most work in service jobs • Work more than in other developed countries; less than developing countries

  38. Careers, Work, and Retirement Advantages and Disadvantages of Part-Time Work for Adolescents • Pros • Understand how business world works • Learn how to get and keep a job • Manage money • Budget time • Pride in accomplishments • Evaluate goals Cons • Give up sports • Forego social affairs with peers • Less sleep • Balance demands of work, school, family, and peers • Lower grades

  39. Careers, Work, and Retirement Work in Adulthood • Changing gender roles • Increasing dual-earner couples • Men increasing responsibility for maintaining home • Women increasing responsibility for breadwinning • Men showing greater interest in family and parenting

  40. Careers, Work, and Retirement Changing Percentages of Traditional & Dual-Career Couples Fig. 16.8

  41. Careers, Work, and Retirement Age and Job Satisfaction Fig. 16.9

  42. Careers, Work, and Retirement Careers and Work in Middle Adulthood • Midlife time of evaluation, assessment, and reflection • Recognizing limitations in career progress • Deciding whether to change jobs or careers • Rebalance family and work • Planning for retirement

  43. Careers, Work, and Retirement Work in Late Adulthood • Percentage of older adults who work part-time steadily increased since 1960s • Good health • Strong psychological commitment to work • Distaste for retirement • Cognitive ability • Many participate in unpaid work

  44. Careers, Work, and Retirement Retirement • Option to retire late twentieth-century phenomenon in U.S. • Today’s workers will spend 10 to 15 percent of their lives in retirement • 80 percent of baby boomers said they expect to work during retirement • Flexibility is key factor in adjustment

  45. 16 The End

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