Download
settlement patterns urban geography n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
SETTLEMENT PATTERNS/ URBAN GEOGRAPHY PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
SETTLEMENT PATTERNS/ URBAN GEOGRAPHY

SETTLEMENT PATTERNS/ URBAN GEOGRAPHY

826 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

SETTLEMENT PATTERNS/ URBAN GEOGRAPHY

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. SETTLEMENT PATTERNS/ URBAN GEOGRAPHY

  2. SUBJECT OVERVIEW • Defining Urbanism • SETTLEMENTS • ORIGINS OF SETTLEMENTS • TYPES OF SETTLEMENTS • DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN SETTLEMENTS • CITY HISTORY • URBAN PATTERNS

  3. What is Urbanism? • Depends on time and culture: • The size of the stationary population is part of the picture… but it varies according to the historical context and location • The size of a city varies geographically; Portugal=10,000, Ethiopia=2,000, Norway=200 • Therefore, urbanism usually is qualified by a population considered large for its time and place

  4. What makes a City a City? • Population alone does not make a city; a stadium may hold many people, but is it a city? • There must also be government of some kind. • There must also be definable boundaries; even if they change over time. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) used to calculate a city’s boundaries: a city center and its immediately interacting counties

  5. What makes a City a City… • The economy is another layer in classifying it as rural or urban… economic diversity • A cultural layer also plays a role in defining a place’s degree of urbanity or “cityness”… cultural diversity • So, a clear definition of urban or city more of a process of comparison than a sentence or two… it depends!

  6. Hearths of Urbanization • Where did cities and urbanism, or urban life begin? • The earliest cities were born around 3500 BCE spawned from agricultural villages: • Mesopotamia • Indus River region • Nile Valley • Huang He River valle • Mexico • Peru

  7. Settlement • Settlement - a permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants

  8. GEOGRAPHIC PERSPECTIVE OF SETTLEMENTS • Geographers are interested in the patterns of settlements and the interrelationship of settlements • How do the patterns of settlements explain human culture?

  9. ORIGINS OF SETTLEMENTS • Religious - graves, churches, temples • Cultural - schools, libraries • Political/Military - leader’s house, walls • Economic - stores, food

  10. TYPES OF SETTLEMENTS • Rural Settlements - agriculture as the predominant occupation. • Urban settlements - principal industries are secondary and tertiary.

  11. RURAL SETTLEMENTS • Clustered rural settlements -grouped settlements in rural areas to minimize travel

  12. RURAL SETTLEMENTS • Dispersed rural Settlements - isolated farms with enclosed continuous fields

  13. RURAL SETTLEMENTS IN THE EASTERN U.S. • New England - clustered villages of the colonists • Mid Atlantic - dispersed isolated farms of the Dutch, Swedes, Irish and Germans • South - plantations (mansions surrounded by plantation services)

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN SETTLEMENTS • Prior to modern times most settlements were rural • First Urban Settlement • UR (modern day of Iraq) • Other Early Cities • Mycenae,Troy, & Isle of Crete in Greece • Settlements along the world’s great rivers

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN SETTLEMENTS • Athens - first city over 100,000 • by the 5th century BC over 300,000 • Rome - center of an empire 200 BC-400 AD • “all roads lead to Rome” • Paris, London, Vienna - all old Roman sites • Mid-Evil Europe - after the fall of Rome • urbanization decreased • patterns of castles, walls & narrow streets • compact space surrounded by walls

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN SETTLEMENTS • Renaissance-Baroque Cities • Renaissance 15-16th centuries • Baroque 16-18th centuries • development of wide avenues & monuments • Paris & London rebuilt, Washington D.C. • Industrial City • 19th century to present • city designed around industry and transportation • most modern cities

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN SETTLEMENTS • Megalopolis - • conurbation of a number of cities blended together without separation • “The Blob” Lewis Mumford • SMSA- Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area • 40% of the world’s population lives in urban areas

  18. URBAN SMSA’s • First city with 1 million - London in 1810 • Over 1 million - 180+ cities • Over 10 million - LA, Buenos Aires, London, Bombay, Jakarta, Mexico City, New York City, Osaka, Paris, Rio De Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Seoul • Over 30 million - Tokyo

  19. DEFINITION OF THE CITY • Physical Definition of the City - Non- rural settlement that is, built up, economically functional, has a local government, and a legal boundary. • Environmental Definition of the City • urban dust domes • (defined by pollution) • heat island • (defined by increased temperatures)

  20. GROWTH OF THE CITY • Skyscrapers - using vertical space • intensive use of land • shops at street level • professional offices at higher levels • Outward Expansion • advent of the automobile & transportation routes • decline of public transport

  21. OUTWARD EXPANSION (con’t) • Squatter Settlements - illegally erected shacks, cardboard structures and tents, due to rapid growth in cities of developing countries • De-urbanization of the City • suburbanism - legally independent cities • cluster cities • rural areas- preferable to urban lifestyle • telecommuting - economic activity from a distance

  22. Sao Paulo squatter settlement

  23. DISTRIBUTION OF CITIES • Physical Restraints • Manufacturing - North & East • Retail Cities serving farmers - Mid West • Resorts & Retirement - Southwest • Economic Functions • site & situation factors • International Trade - Port Cities • Entertainment Centers - Las Vegas

  24. DISTRIBUTION OF CITIES • International Distribution • Developed countries have a higher population living in urban areas • Two thirds live in urban areas • Developing countries have the greatest increases in the number of large urban settlements • One quarter live in urban areas • Most of the largest cities are in the developing regions

  25. URBAN PATTERNS

  26. URBAN PATTERNS • City Center • best known area, most visually distinctive • San Francisco, London • original site of settlement • Central Business District • retail & office space • assessable • often a focal point with skyscrapers • specialized stores for the office workers

  27. URBAN PATTERNS • Zones in Transition • mixed use with light industry • transition from business to residential • older neighborhoods (slums) • home to ethnic groups not culturally integrated • ghettos vs. ethnic neighborhood • Suburbs • residential • nodes of retail services

  28. CENTRAL PLACE THEORY • Threshold - number of people to support • Range - distance people will travel for service

  29. SUBJECT REVIEW • SETTLEMENTS • ORIGINS OF SETTLEMENTS • TYPES OF SETTLEMENTS • DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN SETTLEMENTS • CITY HISTORY • URBAN PATTERNS